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Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) requires the exclusion of other possible diagnoses. For this reason, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) should be routinely analysed in patients with a first clinical event suggestive of MS. CSF analysis is no longer mandatory for diagnosis of relapsing-remitting MS, as long as MRI diagnostic criteria are fulfilled. However,(More)
Neurofilaments (Nf) are the major constitutents of the axoskeleton and body fluid Nf levels are an important tool for estimating axonal degeneration in vivo. This paper presents a new sandwich ELISA allowing quantification of the NfH(SMI35) phosphoform from CSF, brain tissue and cell culture homogenates. The sensitivity of the NfH(SMI35) ELISA is 0.2 ng/ml(More)
Multiple sclerosis is increasingly being recognized as a neurodegenerative disease that is triggered by inflammatory attack of the CNS. As yet there is no satisfactory treatment. Using experimental allergic encephalo myelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis, we demonstrate that the cannabinoid system is neuroprotective during EAE. Mice(More)
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new method that could aid analysis of neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS) by capturing thinning of the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL). Meta-analyses of data for time domain OCT show RNFL thinning of 20.38 microm (95% CI 17.91-22.86, n=2063, p<0.0001) after optic neuritis in MS, and of 7.08 microm(More)
This review on the role of neurofilaments as surrogate markers for axonal degeneration in neurological diseases provides a brief background to protein synthesis, assembly, function and degeneration. Methodological techniques for quantification are described and a protein nomenclature is proposed. The relevance for recognising anti-neurofilament(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship of CSF and the serum nitric oxide metabolites nitrite and nitrate (NOx) to disease activity and progression in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS The study was divided into cross-sectional and follow-up. In the cross-sectional study, 20 patients with relapsing-remitting (RR), 21 with secondary(More)
Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) represents the earliest phase of multiple sclerosis (MS). This study tested whether biomarkers for axonal degeneration can improve upon sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters in predicting conversion from CIS to MS. Patients with CIS (n = 52), relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS, n = 38) and(More)
Optic neuritis is an inflammatory optic neuropathy that affects many patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) at some point during their disease course. Differentiation of acute episodes of MS-associated optic neuritis from other autoimmune and inflammatory optic neuropathies is vital for treatment choice and further patient management, but is not always(More)
OBJECTIVE To test blood and CSF neurofilament light chain (NfL) levels in relation to disease progression and survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS Using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, NfL levels were measured in samples from 2 cohorts of patients with sporadic ALS and healthy controls, recruited in London (ALS/control,(More)
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new method potentially applicable for the analysis of neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS) by capturing thinning of the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL). Metaanalyses of time domain OCT (TDOCT) data demonstrates RNFL thinning of 20 µm (95%CI 18-23, n=2063, p¡0.00001) following MS optic neuritis (MSON) and µm(More)