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Recent advances in fluorescence imaging permit studies of Ca(2+) dynamics in large numbers of cells, in anesthetized and awake behaving animals. However, unlike for electrophysiological signals, standardized algorithms for assigning optically recorded signals to individual cells have not yet emerged. Here, we describe an automated sorting procedure that… (More)
Although it is firmly established that neuronal activity is a prime determinant of animal behavior, relationships between astrocytic excitation and animal behavior have remained opaque. Cerebellar Bergmann glia are radial astrocytes that are implicated in motor behavior and exhibit Ca(2+) excitation. However, Ca(2+) excitation in these cells has not… (More)
The light microscope is traditionally an instrument of substantial size and expense. Its miniaturized integration would enable many new applications based on mass-producible, tiny microscopes. Key prospective usages include brain imaging in behaving animals for relating cellular dynamics to animal behavior. Here we introduce a miniature (1.9 g) integrated… (More)
A central goal in biomedicine is to explain organismic behavior in terms of causal cellular processes. However, concurrent observation of mammalian behavior and underlying cellular dynamics has been a longstanding challenge. We describe a miniaturized (1.1 g mass) epifluorescence microscope for cellular-level brain imaging in freely moving mice, and its… (More)
Astrocytes are one of the most numerous cell types in the CNS. They have emerged as sophisticated cells participating in a large and diverse variety of functions vital for normal brain development, adult physiology and pathology. Recent in vivo studies have provided exciting new insight into astrocyte physiology in the intact healthy brain. This review will… (More)
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Supplementary Figure 1 An array of integrated microscopes can facilitate parallel imaging applications. Supplementary Figure 2 The integrated microscope enables Ca 2+ imaging studies of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons in freely behaving mice. Supplementary Table 1 CMOS image sensor specifications and characterization results.