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BACKGROUND Inanimate surfaces have often been described as the source for outbreaks of nosocomial infections. The aim of this review is to summarize data on the persistence of different nosocomial pathogens on inanimate surfaces. METHODS The literature was systematically reviewed in MedLine without language restrictions. In addition, cited articles in a(More)
The etiology of nosocomial infections, the frequency of contaminated hands with the different nosocomial pathogens, and the role of health care workers' hands during outbreaks suggest that a hand hygiene preparation should at least have activity against bacteria, yeasts, and coated viruses. The importance of efficacy in choosing the right hand hygiene(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to analyze the current status of morphologic and functional thyroid abnormalities in a previously iodine-deficient area. METHODS The population based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) comprised 4310 participants, aged 20-79 years. Thyroid function (thyrotropin [TSH] free triiodothyronine [FT(3)], and free(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess the suitability of an antiseptic agent, both the microbicidal activity and the cytotoxic effect must be taken into consideration to derive biocompatible antibacterial agents. METHODS We defined the biocompatibility index (BI) by measuring the antibacterial activity against the test organisms Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus(More)
The study aim was to compare the prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and eczema in children living in Münster, western Germany, and Greifswald, eastern Germany, and to investigate associations of several characteristics and exposures with atopic disease symptoms. In 1994 and 1995, questionnaire information was gathered on 5-8 yr old children (n=3,741 in Münster(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the increasing promotion of alcohol-based hand rubs and the worldwide use of ethanol-based hand rubs in hospitals only few studies have specifically addressed the issue of ethanol absorption when repeatedly applied to human skin. The aim of this study was to assess if ethanol absorption occurs during hygienic and surgical hand(More)
  • Axel Kramer
  • ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and…
  • 1994
This paper presents motivation, design, and algorithms for using and implementing translucent, non-rectangular patches as a substitute for rectangular opaque windows. The underlying metaphor is closer to a mix between the architects yellow paper and the usage of white boards, than to rectangular opaque paper in piles and folders on a desktop. Translucent(More)
Constraints describe relations that must be maintained, and provide a useful tool for such applications as interactive simulations, algorithm animation, and graphical user interface construction. We describe a major overhaul and extension to the constraint satisfaction mechanism in ThingLab, a constraint-oriented simulation laboratory written in the(More)
The aim of this study was to determine whether the inhalation of formaldehyde has a neurotoxicological impact. Forty Wistar rats (Lew.1/K) were trained to find food in a maze within a particular time. When all animals were at an equal level, 13 rats inhaled 2.6 ppm and 13 others inhaled 4.6 ppm formaldehyde 10 min/d, 7 d/week for 90 d. The control group(More)
BACKGROUND In topical wound treatment, the combination of anti-infectious therapy and a healing-promoting moisturization has not been accomplished yet. OBJECTIVE Evaluation of a new topical drug consisting of a povidone-iodine (PVP-I) liposome hydrogel allowing for both antiseptic and moist treatment. METHODS Pharmaceutical formulation of a complex of(More)