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Giant pulsations are nearly monochromatic ULF-pulsations of the Earth's magnetic ®eld with periods of about 100 s and amplitudes of up to 40 nT. For one such event ground-magnetic observations as well as simultaneous GEOS-2 magnetic and electric ®eld data and proton ¯ux measurements made in the geostationary orbit have been analysed. The observations of the(More)
  • M Rubin, K Altwegg, +29 authors P Wurz
  • 2015
Molecular nitrogen (N2) is thought to have been the most abundant form of nitrogen in the protosolar nebula. It is the main N-bearing molecule in the atmospheres of Pluto and Triton and probably the main nitrogen reservoir from which the giant planets formed. Yet in comets, often considered the most primitive bodies in the solar system, N2 has not been(More)
The RAPID spectrometer (Research with Adaptive Particle Imaging Detectors) for the Cluster mission is an advanced particle detector for the analysis of suprathermal plasma distributions in the energy range from 20–400 keV for electrons, 40 keV–1500 keV (4000 keV) for hydrogen, and 10 keV nucl ,1 –1500 keV (4000 keV) for heavier ions. Novel detector concepts(More)
The importance of comets for the origin of life on Earth has been advocated for many decades. Amino acids are key ingredients in chemistry, leading to life as we know it. Many primitive meteorites contain amino acids, and it is generally believed that these are formed by aqueous alterations. In the collector aerogel and foil samples of the Stardust mission(More)
The advanced energetic particle spectrometer RAPID on board Cluster can provide a complete description of the relevant particle parameters velocity, V , and atomic mass, A, over an energy range from 30 keV up to 1.5 MeV. We present the first measurements taken by RAPID during the commissioning and the early operating phases. The orbit on 14 January 2001,(More)
Measurements with the Energetic Particle Composition instrument (EPAC) aboard Ulysses show particles from near the ecliptic that were apparently accelerated by shocks associated with a corotating interaction region. The particles were detected together with the shocks and even when shocks no longer arrived at Ulysses up to -65 degrees of heliographic(More)
The endogenous activity of the local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the anti-ischaemic properties of captopril were investigated in electrically driven rabbit Langendorff hearts (constant pressure: 70 cmH2O, Tyrode solution, Ca2+ 1.8 mmol.l-1). Cumulative concentration-response curves showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the reduction of(More)
Comets contain the best-preserved material from the beginning of our planetary system. Their nuclei and comae composition reveal clues about physical and chemical conditions during the early solar system when comets formed. ROSINA (Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis) onboard the Rosetta spacecraft has measured the coma composition of(More)
In situ measurements of the composition and spatial distribution of heavy thermal positive ions in the coma of comet Halley were made with the heavy-ion analyzer RPA2-PICCA aboard the Giotto spacecraft. Above 50 atomic mass units an ordered series of mass peaks centered at 61, 75, 91, and 105 atomic mass units were observed. Each peak appears to be composed(More)
The provenance of water and organic compounds on Earth and other terrestrial planets has been discussed for a long time without reaching a consensus. One of the best means to distinguish between different scenarios is by determining the deuterium-to-hydrogen (D/H) ratios in the reservoirs for comets and Earth's oceans. Here, we report the direct in situ(More)