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Giant pulsations are nearly monochromatic ULF-pulsations of the Earth's magnetic ®eld with periods of about 100 s and amplitudes of up to 40 nT. For one such event ground-magnetic observations as well as simultaneous GEOS-2 magnetic and electric ®eld data and proton ¯ux measurements made in the geostationary orbit have been analysed. The observations of the(More)
Molecular nitrogen (N2) is thought to have been the most abundant form of nitrogen in the protosolar nebula. It is the main N-bearing molecule in the atmospheres of Pluto and Triton and probably the main nitrogen reservoir from which the giant planets formed. Yet in comets, often considered the most primitive bodies in the solar system, N2 has not been(More)
The advanced energetic particle spectrometer RAPID on board Cluster can provide a complete description of the relevant particle parameters velocity, V , and atomic mass, A, over an energy range from 30 keV up to 1.5 MeV. We present the first measurements taken by RAPID during the commissioning and the early operating phases. The orbit on 14 January 2001,(More)
Measurements with the Energetic Particle Composition instrument (EPAC) aboard Ulysses show particles from near the ecliptic that were apparently accelerated by shocks associated with a corotating interaction region. The particles were detected together with the shocks and even when shocks no longer arrived at Ulysses up to -65 degrees of heliographic(More)
Comets contain the best-preserved material from the beginning of our planetary system. Their nuclei and comae composition reveal clues about physical and chemical conditions during the early solar system when comets formed. ROSINA (Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis) onboard the Rosetta spacecraft has measured the coma composition of(More)
The composition of the neutral gas comas of most comets is dominated by H2O, CO and CO2, typically comprising as much as 95 per cent of the total gas density. In addition, cometary comas have been found to contain a rich array of other molecules, including sulfuric compounds and complex hydrocarbons. Molecular oxygen (O2), however, despite its detection on(More)
Neutral oxygen in the saturnian system shows variability, and the total number of oxygen atoms peaks at 4 x 10(34). Saturn's aurora brightens in response to solar-wind forcing, and the auroral spectrum resembles Jupiter's. Phoebe's surface shows variable water-ice content, and the data indicate it originated in the outer solar system. Saturn's rings also(More)
Rapid fading of auroral activity a few minutes before substorm breakup has earlier been analyzed in case-studies. Here we report on a study in which all-sky camera (ASC) and magnetic data over 3 years were examined to ®nd breakups that were accompanied by a preceding fading. To illustrate typical features of the fading e€ect we analyze three events in(More)
Comets have been considered to be representative of icy planetesimals that may have contributed a significant fraction of the volatile inventory of the terrestrial planets. For example, comets must have brought some water to Earth. However, the magnitude of their contribution is still debated. We report the detection of argon and its relation to the water(More)