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Recently, we and others reported that the doublecortin gene is responsible for X-linked lissencephaly and subcortical laminar heterotopia. Here, we show that Doublecortin is expressed in the brain throughout the period of corticogenesis in migrating and differentiating neurons. Immunohistochemical studies show its localization in the soma and leading(More)
X-SCLH/LIS syndrome is a neuronal migration disorder with disruption of the six-layered neocortex. It consists of subcortical laminar heterotopia (SCLH, band heterotopia, or double cortex) in females and lissencephaly (LIS) in males, leading to epilepsy and cognitive impairment. We report the characterization of a novel CNS gene encoding a 40 kDa predicted(More)
Mitochondria play a pivotal role in apoptosis in multicellular organisms by releasing apoptogenic factors such as cytochrome c that activate the caspases effector pathway, and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) that is involved in a caspase-independent cell death pathway. Here we report that cell death in the single-celled organism Dictyostelium discoideum(More)
Primary or nonspecific X-linked mental retardation (MRX) is a heterogeneous condition in which affected patients do not have any distinctive clinical or biochemical features in common apart from cognitive impairment. Although it is present in approximately 0.15-0.3% of males, most of the genetic defects associated with MRX, which may involve more than ten(More)
The gene that is defective in patients with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy consists of about 60 short exons scattered along a gigantic DNA region that spans some 2 megabase pairs. The encoded protein, dystrophin, was recently characterized as a component of muscle intracellular membranes of low abundance. The dystrophin messenger RNA is difficult to(More)
Motor neuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy cause progressive paralysis, often leading to premature death. Neurotrophic factors have been suggested as therapeutic agents for motor neuron diseases, but their clinical use as injected recombinant protein was limited by toxicity and/or poor bioavailability. We(More)
Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) is a potent neurotrophic factor for motoneurons but its clinical use in motor neuron diseases is precluded by side effects on the heart and liver. We explored the possibility of targeting CT-1 to neurons by coupling with the tetanus toxin fragment TTC. Genetic fusion proteins between CT-1 or GFP and TTC were produced in Escherichia(More)
Inappropriate activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, resulting mainly from activating mutations of the beta-catenin gene, has been implicated recently in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We have generated transgenic mice expressing an oncogenic form of beta-catenin in their hepatocytes to analyze the effect of deregulated(More)
Synthesis of the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and its specific receptor (CNTFRalpha) is widespread in the intact CNS, but potential biological roles for this system remain elusive. Contradictory results have been obtained concerning a possible effect on the morphological and biochemical phenotype of astrocytes. To reassess this question, we have taken(More)
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a recessive autosomal disorder characterized by degeneration of lower motor neurons caused by mutations of the survival motor neuron gene (SMN1). No curative treatment is known so far. Mutant mice carrying homozygous deletion of Smn exon 7 directed to neurons display skeletal muscle denervation, moderate loss of motor neuron(More)