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BACKGROUND An improvement in overall survival among patients with metastatic melanoma has been an elusive goal. In this phase 3 study, ipilimumab--which blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 to potentiate an antitumor T-cell response--administered with or without a glycoprotein 100 (gp100) peptide vaccine was compared with gp100 alone in(More)
BACKGROUND Ipilimumab monotherapy (at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight), as compared with glycoprotein 100, improved overall survival in a phase 3 study involving patients with previously treated metastatic melanoma. We conducted a phase 3 study of ipilimumab (10 mg per kilogram) plus dacarbazine in patients with previously untreated metastatic(More)
PURPOSE Immunotherapeutic agents produce antitumor effects by inducing cancer-specific immune responses or by modifying native immune processes. Resulting clinical response patterns extend beyond those of cytotoxic agents and can manifest after an initial increase in tumor burden or the appearance of new lesions (progressive disease). Response Evaluation(More)
BACKGROUND Ipilimumab is a human monoclonal antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and has shown promising activity in advanced melanoma. We aimed to ascertain the antitumour efficacy of ipilimumab in patients with advanced melanoma. METHODS We undertook a randomised, double-blind, phase 2 trial in 66 centres from 12 countries. 217 patients(More)
Tissue microarrays allow high-throughput molecular profiling of cancer specimens by immunohistochemistry. Phenotype information of sections from arrayed biopsies on a multitissue block needs to be representative of full sections, as protein expression varies throughout the entire tumor specimen. To validate the use of tissue microarrays for(More)
PURPOSE To assess the immunologic effects of dabrafenib and trametinib in vitro and to test whether trametinib potentiates or antagonizes the activity of immunomodulatory antibodies in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Immune effects of dabrafenib and trametinib were evaluated in human CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from healthy volunteers, a panel of human tumor cell(More)
The implementations of high-throughput genetic technologies, such as oligonucleotide microarrays, generate myriad points of data. The identified potential candidate genes need to be further characterized and selected using a large number of well-characterized tumors and stringent criteria. Tissue microarrays allow for such high-throughput expression(More)
OBJECTIVE To define the role of laparoscopic ultrasound (LUS) in the staging of pancreatic tumors. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Laparoscopy has recently been established as a valuable tool in the staging of pancreatic cancer. It has been suggested that the addition of LUS to standard laparoscopy could improve the accuracy of this procedure. METHODS A(More)
PURPOSE Approximately 20% to 30% of patients with curatively resected, node-negative (pN0) colorectal cancer die of tumor recurrence, which can be caused by minimal residual disease. To identify patients with an increased risk of tumor recurrence and evaluate the prognostic value of cytokeratin-20 (CK-20), we detected CK-20-positive cells in(More)
Unlike chemotherapy, which acts directly on the tumor, cancer immunotherapies exert their effects on the immune system and demonstrate new kinetics that involve building a cellular immune response, followed by changes in tumor burden or patient survival. Thus, adequate design and evaluation of some immunotherapy clinical trials require a new development(More)