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Current models for nucleotide sugar use in the Golgi apparatus predict a critical role for the lumenal nucleoside diphosphatase. After transfer of sugars to endogenous macromolecular acceptors, the enzyme converts nucleoside diphosphates to nucleoside monophosphates which in turn exit the Golgi lumen in a coupled antiporter reaction, allowing entry of(More)
CGS 20267 is a new non-steroidal compound which potently inhibits aromatase in vitro (IC50 of 11.5 nM) and in vivo (ED50 of 1-3 micrograms/kg p.o.), CGS 20267 maximally inhibits estradiol production in vitro in LH-stimulated hamster ovarian tissue at 0.1 microM with an IC50 of 0.02 microM and does not significantly affect progesterone production up to 350(More)
Letrozole (CGS 20267) is a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor which, at its maximally effective dose of 1 mg/kg p.o., elicits endocrine effects equivalent to those seen after ovariectomy. Adult, female cyclic rats were administered letrozole (1 mg/kg p.o.) once daily for 14 days. A control group of animals was ovariectomized on day 1 of treatment and a third(More)
Adrenalectomy blocks the memory-improving effect of piracetam-like compounds in mice. If this blockade is due to the removal of endogenous corticosteroids, replacement therapy with exogenous corticosteroids should reinstate the effects on memory. The present experiments were designed to determine the appropriate replacement dose (concentration in the(More)
Various studies showed a clear impairment of cerebellar patients to modulate grip force in anticipation of the loads resulting from movements with a grasped object. This failure corroborated the theory of internal feedforward models in the cerebellum. Cerebellar damage also impairs the coordination of multiple-joint movements and this has been related to(More)
Functioning of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis was assessed in rats treated with DSP-4 (N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine), a selective noradrenergic neurotoxin. Although adrenal weights were slightly increased 10 days after DSP-4 injection, basal plasma corticosterone levels were unaltered compared to those of control animals.(More)
Oral pretreatment with aldosterone or corticosterone blocked the memory-enhancing effects of the calcium antagonist nimodipine, the ACE inhibitor captopril, the NMDA blocker CGP 37,849, and the glycine antagonist strychnine in a passive-avoidance test in mice. The memory-disturbing effects of phenobarbitone, diazepam, CGP 37,849 and scopolamine were not(More)
Previous experiments have shown that the GABAB receptor agonist L-baclofen given subcutaneously to male rats significantly enhanced plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and the adrenocortical hormones corticosterone and aldosterone. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether the stimulatory effects on adrenocortical(More)
The mechanism through which nootropics of the piracetam type (i.e., piracetam itself and its analogues oxiracetam, pramiracetam, and aniracetam) improve memory is still uncertain. Its elucidation will, however, not only mark an advance in the treatment of cognitive disorders, but also shed light on the basic processes of memory storage. Although the great(More)