Axel Breuer

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Factors involved in fast axonal transport (motor proteins, microtubules, organelles, etc.) have been identified but the molecular mechanism controlling transport is unknown. We used video enhanced microscopy to directly evaluate the effect of calcium on fast axonal transport (FAxT). FAxT alterations included rapid speed decreases (within minutes) in Ca2+(More)
We performed double-blind crossover trials to assess the effects of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. For acute intravenous trials, 500 mg TRH or placebo with norepinephrine was given at 1-week intervals (16 patients). CSF TRH concentration increased, and clinical side effects appeared with TRH. For chronic(More)
Although damage to the veins of Batson's epidural plexus is usually considered the origin of bleeding in traumatic lumbar puncture, a lesion of these veins would not explain the cases in which postmortem examination shows blood confined to the subdural and subarachnoid spaces. In two patients who had lumbar punctures a few days before death, there was(More)
Organelle translocation in a number of cell types in tissue culture as seen by high-resolution Zeiss-Nomarski differential interference contrast optics was filmed and analyzed by computer. Principal cell types studied included primary chick spinal cord, chick dorsal root ganglion, ratbrain, and various clones of continuous cell lines. Organelle(More)
Among 421 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery, 55 (13%) developed 63 new peripheral nervous system (PNS) complications postoperatively. Most common was a brachial radiculoplexopathy, which occurred in 23 patients. Of these, 21 involved lower trunk or medial cord fibers. In 17 there was a correlation between the site of jugular vein(More)
A 30-year-old man experienced the sudden onset of prickly dysesthesia in the perineum followed by a "heavy" sensation in the left lower extremity. There was no headache. He had a hyperpathic response to pinprick and temperature testing below the T-6 dermatome on the left and a decrease of light touch below T-10, also on the left. A small ruptured(More)
Fast transport of intra-axonal organelles was studied in motor nerve from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Organelle traffic in ALS nerves demonstrated a significant increase in anterograde mean speed, while retrograde mean speed was decreased compared with that of controls. Retrograde traffic density (organelles per unit time) was also(More)
A new culture system for cells from the mammalian brain was developed by a modification of a previously established technique. This modification involved the use of fluorodeoxyuridine and adult horse serum. The cultures contained large, easily visualized neurons both isolated from other neurons and in networks of varying complexity. These cells were large(More)
Abnormalities in axonal transport have been observed in human and experimental diabetes and may be related to the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Axonal transport has previously been evaluated by indirect methods. In this study, direct-measurement techniques were applied (with computer-enhanced video-recorded images) for the first time to evaluate(More)
Video-enhanced contrast techniques have been used to study fast axonal transport of organelles in diseased and normal human axons. A broad perspective on the importance of axonal transport in the pathogenesis of human neurological disorders is presented and problems in dealing with human nerve summarized. Results from analysis of organelle traffic in axons(More)