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Fungi produce a multitude of low-molecular-mass compounds known as secondary metabolites, which have roles in a range of cellular processes such as transcription, development and intercellular communication. In addition, many of these compounds now have important applications, for instance, as antibiotics or immunosuppressants. Genome mining efforts(More)
Expression of the Aspergillus nidulans penicillin biosynthesis genes acvA and ipnA, encoding delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase and isopenicillin N synthetase, respectively, was analyzed. The intergenic region carrying the divergently oriented promoters was fused in frame in both orientations to Escherichia coli lacZ and E. coli(More)
The major cause of athlete's foot is Trichophyton rubrum, a dermatophyte or fungal pathogen of human skin. To facilitate molecular analyses of the dermatophytes, we sequenced T. rubrum and four related species, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton equinum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum. These species differ in host range, mating, and disease(More)
Gliotoxin is a secondary metabolite produced by several fungi including the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. As gliotoxin exerts immunosuppressive effects in vitro and in vivo, a role as a virulence determinant in invasive aspergillosis has been discussed for a long time but evidence has not been provided until now. Here, by the use of(More)
Gliotoxin (GT) is the prototype of the epidithiodioxopiperazine (ETP)-type fungal toxins. GT plays a critical role in the pathobiology of Aspergillus fumigatus. It modulates the immune response and induces apoptosis in different cell types. The toxicity has been attributed to the unusual intramolecular disulfide bridge, which is the functional motif of all(More)
Macrophages and neutrophils kill the airborne fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. The dependency of this killing process on reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) has been strongly suggested. Therefore, we investigated the enzymatic ROI detoxifying system by proteome analysis of A. fumigatus challenged by H(2)O(2). Since many of the identified proteins and(More)
Aspergillus fumigatus is an important pathogen of immunocompromised hosts, causing pneumonia and invasive disseminated disease with high mortality. The factors contributing to the predominance of A. fumigatus as an opportunistic pathogen are largely unknown. Since the survival of conidia in the host is a prerequisite for establishing disease, we have been(More)
Iron is essential for a wide range of cellular processes. Here we show that the bZIP-type regulator HapX is indispensable for the transcriptional remodeling required for adaption to iron starvation in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. HapX represses iron-dependent and mitochondrial-localized activities including respiration, TCA(More)
Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important airborne fungal pathogen causing life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. Macrophages and neutrophils are known to kill conidia, whereas hyphae are killed mainly by neutrophils. Since hyphae are too large to be engulfed, neutrophils possess an array of extracellular killing mechanisms including(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are involved in the regulation of various cellular responses in eukaryotes. In fungal pathogens they are of special interest because of their possible contribution to pathogenicity. Bioinformatic analysis of the genome of the most prevalent airborne human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus,(More)