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TiO(2) nanoparticles (< 100 nm diameter) have been reported to cause oxidative stress related effects, including inflammation, cytotoxicity and genomic instability, either alone or in the presence of UVA irradiation in mammalian studies. Despite the fact that the aquatic environment is often the ultimate recipient of all contaminants there is a paucity of(More)
This review paper reports the consensus of a technical workshop hosted by the European network, NanoImpactNet (NIN). The workshop aimed to review the collective experience of working at the bench with manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs), and to recommend modifications to existing experimental methods and OECD protocols. Current procedures for cleaning(More)
The last 25 years have seen major advances in the field of mammalian genotoxicology, particularly with the advent of molecular methods, some of which have spilled over into the relatively new field of eco-genotoxicology, which aims to evaluate the impact of contaminants on the natural biota. Unlike mammalian genotoxicology, where the focus is centred on a(More)
The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) is a useful assay for the detection of genotoxin-induced DNA damage and mutations. In this study, we have further evaluated the potential of this assay to measure benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced DNA changes, and repair (in kinetic experiments) as well as transgenerational effects in the water fleas, Daphnia magna.(More)
More than 9000 papers using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) or related techniques (e.g. the arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR)) have been published from 1990 to 2005. The RAPD method has been initially used to detect polymorphism in genetic mapping, taxonomy and phylogenetic studies and later in genotoxicity and carcinogenesis(More)
It is well-established that exposure of aqueous suspensions of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticles to ultraviolet A (UVA) light produces reactive oxygen species which leads to biological damage. However, there is disagreement in the literature as to the exact nature of these species and how they are formed. Using a number of different spin traps (i.e.(More)
The use of fish primary cells and cell lines offer an in vitro alternative for assessment of chemical toxicity and the evaluation of environmental samples in ecotoxicology. However, their uses are not without limitations such as short culture periods and loss of functionality, particularly with primary tissue. While three-dimensional (spheroid) technology(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay to qualitatively detect the kinetics of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-induced DNA effects in the water flea Daphnia magna exposed to 25 and 50 micrograms l-1 B[a]P for 7 and 6 days, respectively. Mortality was recorded on a daily basis in both experiments, and(More)
The alkaline version of the single cell gel electrophoresis assay, popularly known as the Comet assay, is widely used to evaluate the genotoxic potential of chemicals and environmental contaminants, and for environmental monitoring purposes. In recent years, this assay has increasingly been recognized as a potentially valuable tool for regulatory studies.(More)
The Comet Assay or single cell gel electrophoresis assay is one of the very widely used assays to microscopically detect DNA damage at the level of a single cell. The determination of damage is carried out either through visual scoring of cells (after classification into different categories on the basis of tail length and shape) or by using different(More)