Avril Genene Holt

Learn More
The inferior colliculus (IC) is a major center of integration in the ascending as well as descending auditory pathways, where both excitatory and inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitters play a key role. When normal input to the auditory system is decreased, the balance between excitation and inhibition in the IC is disturbed. We examined global changes in(More)
Animal models continue to improve our understanding of tinnitus pathogenesis and aid in development of new treatments. However, there are no diagnostic biomarkers for tinnitus-related pathophysiology for use in awake, freely moving animals. To address this disparity, two complementary methods were combined to examine reliable tinnitus models (rats(More)
The inferior colliculus is a major relay nucleus in the ascending auditory pathways that receives multiple glutamatergic inputs. Vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 (VGLUT1, VGLUT2) most often have complementary non-overlapping distributions and can be used to differentiate glutamatergic inputs. The present study therefore examined co-immunolabeling of(More)
Two-pore potassium channels can influence neuronal excitability by regulating background leakage of potassium ions and resting membrane potential. The present study used quantitative real time PCR and in situ hybridization to determine if the decreased activity from deafness would induce changes in two-pore potassium channel subunit expression in the rat(More)
There is increasing evidence of activity-related plasticity in auditory pathways. The present study examined the effects of decreased activity on immunolocalization of the inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine in the cochlear nucleus of the rat after bilateral cochlear ablation. Specifically, glycine-immunoreactive puncta adjacent to somatic profiles were(More)
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a key enzyme in the catecholaminergic pathway, allows for the differentiation of dopaminergic neurons. We previously showed decreases in TH gene expression in the rat inferior colliculus (IC) 3 and 21 days following deafness. In the present study, we characterized the normal distribution of TH as well as changes following deafness(More)
An immunocytochemical comparison of vGluT1 and vGluT3 in the cochlear nucleus (CN) of deafened versus normal hearing rats showed the first example of vGluT3 immunostaining in the dorsal and ventral CN and revealed temporal and spatial changes in vGluT1 localization in the CN after cochlear injury. In normal hearing rats vGluT1 immunostaining was restricted(More)
Two-pore domain potassium channels (K(2PD)+) play an important role in setting resting membrane potential by regulating background leakage of potassium ions, which in turn controls neuronal excitability. To determine whether these channels contribute to activity-dependent plasticity following deafness, we used quantitative real-time PCR to examine the(More)
Elevated levels of benzodiazepine receptor agonists are found in both animal models of hepatic encephalopathy and in humans with this syndrome. The present study investigated the relationship between agonist levels and the severity of the encephalopathy, as well as the potential reversibility of the syndrome by benzodiazepine receptor antagonists. The(More)
Cochlear implants (CIs) are prosthetic devices that restore hearing in deaf individuals via electric stimulation of the auditory nerve through an electrode array inserted in the cochlea. The device consists of a microphone and an externally worn speech processor that converts acoustic signals into electric signals. The speech signal coded with electric(More)