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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of regulatory RNAs of approximately 21 nucleotides that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression by directing mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. Increasing evidence points to a potential role of miRNAs in diverse physiological processes. miR398 targets two closely related Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases (cytosolic(More)
Post-translational modifications of histones play crucial roles in the genetic and epigenetic regulation of gene expression from chromatin. Studies in mammals and yeast have found conserved modifications at some residues of histones as well as non-conserved modifications at some other sites. Although plants have been excellent systems to study epigenetic(More)
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark for transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) in diverse organisms. Recent studies suggest that the methylation status of a number of genes is dynamically regulated by methylation and demethylation. In Arabidopsis, active DNA demethylation is mediated by the ROS1 (repressor of silencing 1) subfamily of(More)
Activating mutations in KRAS are among the most frequent events in diverse human carcinomas and are particularly prominent in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). An inducible Kras(G12D)-driven mouse model of PDAC has established a critical role for sustained Kras(G12D) expression in tumor maintenance, providing a model to determine the potential(More)
Mutations in the DNA glycosylase/lyase ROS1 cause transcriptional silencing of the linked RD29A-LUC and 35S-NPTII transgenes in Arabidopsis. We report here that mutations in the Arabidopsis RPA2 locus release the silencing of 35S-NPTII but not RD29A-LUC in the ros1 mutant background. The rpa2 mutation also leads to enhanced expression of some transposons.(More)
Epigenetic regulation involves reversible changes in DNA methylation and/or histone modification patterns. Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can direct DNA methylation and heterochromatic histone modifications, causing sequence-specific transcriptional gene silencing. In animals and yeast, histone H2B is known to be monoubiquitinated, and this regulates the(More)
In plants, many gene transcripts are very unstable, which is important for the tight control of their temporal and spatial expression patterns. To identify cellular factors controlling the stability of unstable mRNAs in plants, we used luciferase imaging in Arabidopsis thaliana to isolate a recessive mutant, stabilized1-1 (sta1-1), with enhanced stability(More)
The Arabidopsis DNA glycosylase/lyase ROS1 participates in active DNA demethylation by a base-excision pathway. ROS1 has been shown to be required for demethylating a transgene promoter. To determine the function of ROS1 in demethylating endogenous loci, we carried out bisulfite-sequencing analysis of several transposons and other genes in the ros1 mutant.(More)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest cancers in western countries, with a median survival of 6 months and an extremely low percentage of long-term surviving patients. KRAS mutations are known to be a driver event of PDAC, but targeting mutant KRAS has proved challenging. Targeting oncogene-driven signalling pathways is a(More)
Cancer is a disease consisting of both genetic and epigenetic changes. Although increasing evidence demonstrates that tumour progression entails chromatin-mediated changes such as DNA methylation, the role of histone variants in cancer initiation and progression currently remains unclear. Histone variants replace conventional histones within the nucleosome(More)