Avital Bauman

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Astrocytes, together with microglia and macrophages, participate in innate inflammatory responses in the CNS. Although inflammatory mediators such as interferons generated by astrocytes may be critical in the defense of the CNS, sustained unopposed cytokine signaling could result in harmful consequences. Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is a(More)
Common challenges to any cell are the processing of the extracellular stimuli it receives into intracellular signaling cascades that initiate a multitude of diverse biological functions. However, many of these stimuli act via a common signaling pathway, suggesting the cell must somehow discriminate between different stimuli and respond accordingly.(More)
Cellular retinol-binding protein II (CRBP-II) and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) are both expressed in small intestinal enterocytes and exhibit 31% sequence identity. I-FABP binds a single molecule of long-chain fatty acid and forms an ion-pair electrostatic interaction between the cationic side chain of arginine-106 and the anionic fatty(More)
Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is a transcription factor critical in the induction of antiviral immunity. IRF3 is activated following stimulation of cell membrane or cytosolic nucleic acid sensors and is essential in the induction of the IFNβ gene. Most cells constitutively express IRF3 in vitro, but little is known about the regulation of expression(More)
The distribution of insulin injected into normal rats and guinea pigs as the free hormone or as insulin-antibody complexes was studied by extraction of immunoreactive insulin and by following the fate of125I- or131I-labeled insulin in the plasma, liver, kidneys and spleens of the injected animals. Injected free hormone rapidly disappears from the plasma to(More)
Tryptophan metabolism by the kynurenine pathway (KP) is important to the pathogenesis of inflammatory, infectious, and degenerative diseases. The 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) branch of the KP is activated in macrophages and microglia, leading to the generation of 3-HK, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA), and quinolinic acid, which are considered neurotoxic(More)