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Social comparison-the tendency to self-evaluate by comparing ourselves to others-is an important source of competitive behavior. We propose a new model that distinguishes between individual and situational factors that increase social comparison and thus lead to a range of competitive attitudes and behavior. Individual factors are those that vary from(More)
Social comparison theories typically imply a comparable degree of competition between commensurate rivals who are competing on a mutually important dimension. However, the present analysis reveals that the degree of competition between such rivals depends on their proximity to a meaningful standard. Studies 1 to 3 test the prediction that individuals become(More)
This article introduces the N-effect-the discovery that increasing the number of competitors (N) can decrease competitive motivation. Studies 1a and 1b found evidence that average test scores (e.g., SAT scores) fall as the average number of test takers at test-taking venues increases. Study 2 found that individuals trying to finish an easy quiz among the(More)
© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015 K. Mathis (ed.), European Perspectives on Behavioural Law and Economics, Economic Analysis of Law in European Legal Scholarship 2, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-11635-8_2 A. Tor () The Law School, University of Notre Dame, Eck Hall of Law 3163, Notre Dame, IN 46556-0780, USA e-mail: ator@nd.edu Abstract The(More)
We propose a new framework that distinguishes among individual and situational factors in the social comparison process that produces competitive behavior. The familiar individual factors naturally vary among similarly situated people, including the relevance of the performance dimension, the commensurability of rivals, and their relationship closeness to(More)
In a series of 8 studies, we examine whether gender differences in competition entry preferences are moderated by the size of the competition. Drawing on theories of gender roles and stereotypes, we show that women, relative to men, prefer to enter smaller compared with larger competitions. Studies 1a and 1b demonstrate this effect in observational data on(More)
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