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Sideromycins are antibiotics covalently linked to siderophores. They are actively transported into gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Energy-coupled transport across the outer membrane and the cytoplasmic membrane strongly increases their antibiotic efficiency; their minimal inhibitory concentration is at least 100-fold lower than that of antibiotics(More)
In Gram-negative bacteria like Escherichia coli the ExbB-ExbD-TonB protein complex is anchored to the cytoplasmic membrane and is involved in energization of outer membrane transport. Outer membrane proteins catalyze energy-coupled transport of scarce nutrients. Energy is derived from the protonmotive force of the cytoplasmic membrane which is transferred(More)
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