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Substrate specificity determinants of human acetylcholinesterase (HuAChE) were identified by combination of molecular modeling and kinetic studies with enzymes mutated in residues Trp-86, Trp-286, Phe-295, Phe-297, Tyr-337, and Phe-338. The substitution of Trp-86 by alanine resulted in a 660-fold decrease in affinity for acetythiocholine but had no effect(More)
We have examined the effects of 11 substitutions of active centre gorge residues of human acetylcholinesterase (HuAChE) on the rates of phosphonylation by 1,2,2-trimethylpropyl methyl-phosphonofluoridate (soman) and the aging of the resulting conjugates. The rates of phosphonylation were reduced to as little as one-seventieth, mainly in mutants of the(More)
Structures of recombinant wild-type human acetylcholinesterase and of its E202Q mutant as complexes with fasciculin-II, a 'three-finger' polypeptide toxin purified from the venom of the eastern green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps), are reported. The structure of the complex of the wild-type enzyme was solved to 2.8 A resolution by molecular replacement(More)
Several of the residues constituting the peripheral anionic site (PAS) in human acetylcholinesterase (HuAChE) were identified by a combination of kinetic studies with 19 single and multiple HuAChE mutants, fluorescence binding studies with the Trp-286 mutant, and by molecular modeling. Mutants were analyzed with three structurally distinct positively(More)
Bacillus anthracis (Ames strain) chromosome-derived open reading frames (ORFs), predicted to code for surface exposed or virulence related proteins, were selected as B. anthracis-specific vaccine candidates by a multistep computational screen of the entire draft chromosome sequence (February 2001 version, 460 contigs, The Institute for Genomic Research,(More)
The role of the functional architecture of human acetylcholinesterase (HuAChE) active center in facilitating reactions with organophosphorus inhibitors was examined by a combination of site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic studies of phosphorylation with organophosphates differing in size of their alkoxy substituents and in the nature of the leaving group.(More)
The tetrameric form of native serum-derived bovine acetylcholinesterase is retained in the circulation for much longer periods (mean residence time, MRT = 1390 min) than recombinant bovine acetylcholinesterase (rBoAChE) produced in the HEK-293 cell system (MRT = 57 min). Extensive matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight analyses(More)
Amino acids located within and around the 'active site gorge' of human acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were substituted. Replacement of W86 yielded inactive enzyme molecules, consistent with its proposed involvement in binding of the choline moiety in the active center. A decrease in affinity to propidium and a concomitant loss of substrate inhibition was(More)
The beta origin of replication of plasmid R6K, one of three active R6K origins of replication, requires most or all of a 1962-base pair (bp) sequence for activity. The nucleotide sequence of a portion of this functional beta origin was determined in an earlier study (Stalker, D., Kolter, R., and Helinski, D. (1982) J. Mol. Biol. 161, 33-43). In this work,(More)
Post-translational modifications were recently shown to be responsible for the short circulatory mean residence time (MRT) of recombinant human acetylcholinesterase (rHuAChE) [Kronman, Velan, Marcus, Ordentlich, Reuveny and Shafferman (1995) Biochem. J. 311, 959--967; Chitlaru, Kronman, Zeevi, Kam, Harel, Ordentlich, Velan and Shafferman (1998) Biochem. J.(More)