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In terms of functional anatomy, where does learning occur when, for a basic visual discrimination task, performance improves with practice (perceptual learning)? We report remarkable long-term learning in a simple texture discrimination task where learning is specific for retinal input. This learning is (i) local (in a retinotopic sense), (ii) orientation(More)
Several examples of experience-dependent perceptual improvement (perceptual learning) suggest that plasticity in specific neuronal loci could underlie the learning process. For a basic visual discrimination task (using an optimal stimulus for 'automatic' pre-attentive texture segregation), discrete retinal input-dependent changes within a very early stage(More)
Several paradigms of perceptual learning suggest that practice can trigger long-term, experience-dependent changes in the adult visual system of humans. As shown here, performance of a basic visual discrimination task improved after a normal night's sleep. Selective disruption of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep resulted in no performance gain during a(More)
Studies in experimental animals and humans have stressed the role of the cerebellum in motor skill learning. Yet, the relative importance of the cerebellar cortex and deep nuclei, as well as the nature of the dynamic functional changes occurring between these and other motor-related structures during learning, remains in dispute. Using functional magnetic(More)
When do learning-related changes in performance occur? Here we show that the knowledge of a sequence of movements evolves through several distinctive phases that depend on two critical factors: the amount of practice as well as the passage of time. Our results show the following. (i) Within a given session, large performance gains constituted a signature(More)
Recent studies of the improvement of perceptual performance as a function of training - perceptual learning - have provided new insights into the neuronal substrates of this type of skill learning in the adult brain. Issues such as where in the brain, when and under what conditions practice-related changes occur are under investigation. The results of these(More)
The search for the neural substrates mediating the incremental acquisition of skilled motor behaviors has been the focus of a large body of animal and human studies in the past decade. Much less is known, however, with regard to the dynamic neural changes that occur in the motor system during the different phases of learning. In this paper, we review recent(More)
There is increasing evidence supporting the notion that the contribution of sleep to consolidation of motor skills depends on the nature of the task used in practice. We compared the role of three post-training conditions in the expression of delayed gains on two different motor skill learning tasks: finger tapping sequence learning (FTSL) and visuomotor(More)
This study aimed to investigate, through functional MRI (fMRI), the neuronal substrates associated with the consolidation process of two motor skills: motor sequence learning (MSL) and motor adaptation (MA). Four groups of young healthy individuals were assigned to either (i) a night/sleep condition, in which they were scanned while practicing a finger(More)
Two behavioral phenomena characterize human motor memory consolidation: diminishing susceptibility to interference by a subsequent experience and the emergence of delayed, offline gains in performance. A recent model proposes that the sleep-independent reduction in interference is followed by the sleep-dependent expression of offline gains. Here, using the(More)