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BACKGROUND Following a heroin shortage, fentanyl and 3-methylfentanyl, known as "China White" and "White Persian", have become the most widely used drugs, along with amphetamine, among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Tallinn, Estonia. METHODS In order to assess the relationships between the injection of fentanyl and amphetamine, and levels of HIV(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine HIV risk behavior and HIV infection among new injectors in Tallinn, Estonia. Design and methods Data from two cross-sectional surveys of injecting drug users (IDUs) recruited from a syringe exchange program (N = 162, Study 1) or using respondent driven sampling (N = 350, Study 2). Behavioral surveys were administered; serum samples were(More)
BACKGROUND A high copy number of CCL3L1, the most potent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-suppressive chemokine, associates with reduced HIV susceptibility. Whether CCL3L1 influences acquisition of multiple blood-borne infections (eg, hepatitis C virus [HCV], HIV, and hepatitis B virus [HBV] infections), which occur commonly among injection drug users(More)
BACKGROUND Illegal drug use and HIV are independent risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) among injecting drug users (IDU). Estonia and Latvia have experienced high rates of TB as well as IDU and HIV outbreaks. There is a lack of knowledge about TB among IDUs in these countries. The purpose of the current study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors(More)
We found a high prevalence of HIV among injecting drug users (IDU) 54% in Tallinn and 90% in Kohtla Jarve, Estonia. Risk factors for HIV in Tallinn included use of the drug 'china white', being registered as an IDU at a drug treatment clinic, and sharing injecting equipment with sex partners. Differences existed in risk behaviour between the cities. An(More)
BACKGROUND Both syringe exchange programs (SEPs) and pharmacy sales of syringes are available in Estonia, though the current high incidence and high prevalence of HIV among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tallinn, Estonia requires large-scale implementation of additional harm reduction programs as a matter of great urgency. The aims of this report were to(More)
We used the findings from two, cross-sectional studies of HIV serostatus and risk behaviours to assess the effects of knowledge of HIV serostatus and risk behaviours (relating to sex and injection drug use) among injecting drug users (IDUs). Respondent-driven sampling was used simultaneously at two sites in Estonia (the capital Tallinn, and the(More)
Few recent publications have highlighted theoretical and methodological challenges using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). To explore why recruitment with RDS may work in some populations and not in others, we assess the implementation of RDS to recruit female sex workers (FSWs) and injection drug users (IDUs) into a human immunodeficiency virus biological(More)
AIMS Here we report a study aimed at estimating trends in the prevalence of injection drug use between 2005 and 2009 in Estonia. BACKGROUND Descriptions of behavioural epidemics have received little attention compared with infectious disease epidemics in Eastern Europe. METHODS The number of injection drug users (IDUs) aged 15-44 each year between 2005(More)
BACKGROUND Estonia has experienced an HIV epidemic among intravenous drug users (IDUs) with the highest per capita HIV prevalence in Eastern Europe. We assessed the effects of expanded syringe exchange programs (SEP) in the capital city, Tallinn, which has an estimated 10,000 IDUs. METHODS SEP implementation was monitored with data from the Estonian(More)