Austen J Milnerwood

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N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) excitotoxicity is implicated in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD), a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder. However, NMDARs are poor therapeutic targets, due to their essential physiological role. Recent studies demonstrate that synaptic NMDAR transmission drives neuroprotective gene transcription, whereas(More)
Genome-wide analysis of a multi-incident family with autosomal-dominant parkinsonism has implicated a locus on chromosomal region 3q26-q28. Linkage and disease segregation is explained by a missense mutation c.3614G>A (p.Arg1205His) in eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4-gamma (EIF4G1). Subsequent sequence and genotype analysis identified EIF4G1(More)
Progranulin haploinsufficiency is a common cause of familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD), but the role of progranulin in the brain is poorly understood. To investigate the role of murine progranulin (Grn) in the CNS in vivo, we generated mice targeted at the progranulin locus (Grn) using a gene-trap vector. Constitutive progranulin knockout mice (GrnKO)(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive, fatal neurological condition caused by an expansion of CAG (glutamine) repeats in the coding region of the Huntington gene. To date, there is no cure but great strides have been made to understand pathophysiological mechanisms. In particular, genetic animal models of HD have been instrumental in elucidating the(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, late onset, neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor deficits and dementia that is caused by expansion of a CAG repeat in the HD gene. Clinical manifestations result from selective neuronal degeneration of predominantly GABAergic striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs). A growing number of(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor, psychiatric and cognitive decline. Marked neuronal loss occurs in the cortex and striatum. HD is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion and caused by a trinucleotide repeat expansion (CAG) in the gene encoding the protein huntingtin. Predictive genetic(More)
Mutations in the LRRK2 gene represent the most common genetic cause of late onset Parkinson's disease. The physiological and pathological roles of LRRK2 are yet to be fully determined but evidence points towards LRRK2 mutations causing a gain in kinase function, impacting on neuronal maintenance, vesicular dynamics and neurotransmitter release. To explore(More)
Mutations in Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase-2 (LRRK2) result in familial Parkinson's disease and the G2019S mutation alone accounts for up to 30% in some ethnicities. Despite this, the function of LRRK2 is largely undetermined although evidence suggests roles in phosphorylation, protein interactions, autophagy and endocytosis. Emerging reports link loss of(More)
Huntingtin interacting protein 14 (HIP14, ZDHHC17) is a huntingtin (HTT) interacting protein with palmitoyl transferase activity. In order to interrogate the function of Hip14, we generated mice with disruption in their Hip14 gene. Hip14-/- mice displayed behavioral, biochemical and neuropathological defects that are reminiscent of Huntington disease (HD).(More)
Predictive genetic testing for Huntington's disease (HD) has revealed early cognitive deficits in asymptomatic gene carriers, such as altered working memory, executive function and impaired recognition memory. The perirhinal cortex processes aspects of recognition memory and the underlying mechanism is believed to be long-term depression (LTD) of excitatory(More)