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Amphetamine and substituted amphetamines, including methamphetamine, methylphenidate (Ritalin), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy), and the herbs khat and ephedra, encompass the only widely administered class of drugs that predominantly release neurotransmitter, in this case principally catecholamines, by a non-exocytic mechanism. These drugs play(More)
Drugs of abuse, including cocaine, amphetamine (AMPH), and heroin, elevate extracellular dopamine (DA) levels in the brain, thereby altering the activity/plasticity of reward circuits and precipitating addiction. The physiological release of DA occurs through the calcium-dependent fusion of a synaptic vesicle with the plasma membrane. Extracellular DA is(More)
In HEK 293 cells expressing the human dopamine transporter (DAT), a 10-min incubation with 10 microM cocaine followed by extensive washing resulted in a 30% increase in [3H]dopamine (DA) uptake as well as an increase in cell surface DAT in biotinylation experiments. Consistent with this novel regulation, [3H]DA uptake into synaptosomes prepared from the(More)
The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a target of amphetamine (AMPH) and cocaine. These psychostimulants attenuate DAT clearance efficiency, thereby increasing synaptic dopamine (DA) levels. Re-uptake rate is determined by the number of functional transporters at the cell surface as well as by their turnover rate. Here, we present evidence that DAT substrates,(More)
Antidepressant- and cocaine-sensitive serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporters (SERTs) dictate clearance of extracellular 5-HT after release. To explore protein kinase C-mediated SERT regulation, we generated a stable human SERT (hSERT)-expressing cell line (293-hSERT) and evaluated modulation of 5-HT activity via studies of 5-HT flux,(More)
Amphetamine (AMPH) elicits its behavioral effects by acting on the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) to induce DA overflow into the synaptic cleft. Facilitated exchange diffusion is the classical model used to describe AMPH-induced DA efflux. This model hypothesizes that AMPH-induced DA efflux is mediated by DAT and results from the transport of AMPH into the(More)
Presynaptic serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporters (SERTs) mediate antidepressant-sensitive clearance of 5-HT following release. Although we have been aware for decades that SERT-mediated 5-HT clearance can be modulated by exogenous agents including serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors, amphetamines, and cocaine, we have had little reason to(More)
Amphetamine (AMPH) elicits its behavioral effects by acting on the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) to induce DA efflux into the synaptic cleft. We previously demonstrated that a human DAT construct in which the first 22 amino acids were truncated was not phosphorylated by activation of protein kinase C, in contrast to wild-type (WT) DAT, which was(More)
Using SK-N-SH cells, we observe that muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation by methacholine (MCh) rapidly and selectively diminishes l-NE transport capacity (Vmax) with little or no change in norepinephrine (NE) Km and without apparent effects on membrane potential monitored directly under current clamp. Over the same time frame, MCh exposure reduces(More)
The magnitude and duration of dopamine (DA) signaling is defined by the amount of vesicular release, DA receptor sensitivity, and the efficiency of DA clearance, which is largely determined by the DA transporter (DAT). DAT uptake capacity is determined by the number of functional transporters on the cell surface as well as by their turnover rate. Here we(More)