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Classically, nitric oxide (NO) formed by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) freely diffuses from its generation site to smooth muscle cells where it activates soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), producing cGMP. Subsequently, cGMP activates both cGMP- and cAMP-dependent protein kinases [cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA),(More)
We hypothesized that the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) system is present and functional in veins. In vena cava (VC), the presence of the 5-HT synthesis rate-limiting enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase-1 mRNA and accumulation of the 5-HT synthesis intermediate 5-hydroxytryptophan after incubation with tryptophan supported the ability of veins to(More)
The handling of serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] depends on the serotonin transporter (SERT). A SERT knockout (KO) rat is a useful model to test the hypothesis that SERT is the primary mechanism for arterial 5-HT uptake and to investigate the impact of SERT removal on blood pressure. Wild-type (WT) and KO rats were used to measure 5-HT content(More)
Erectile dysfunction is caused by a variety of pathogenic factors, particularly impaired formation and action of nitric oxide (NO). NO released from nerve endings and corpus cavernosum endothelial cells plays a crucial role in initiating and maintaining increased intracavernous pressure, penile vasodilatation, and penile erection. Classically, these effects(More)
The circulatory system consists of veins and arteries. Compared with arteries, veins have been neglected in cardiovascular research. Although veins are significantly less muscular than similarly sized arteries, the contribution of veins to cardiovascular homeostasis cannot be left un-noted because veins accommodate 70% of the circulating blood. Circulating(More)
Reactive oxygen species play an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, disease in which reactive oxygen species levels and markers of oxidative stress are increased. Xanthine oxidase (XO) is a reactive oxygen species-producing enzyme the activity of which may increase during hypertension. Studies on XO inhibition effects on blood pressure have(More)
Erectile dysfunction (ED) reduces the quality of life. It is estimated that 52% of men have some degree of ED, which is associated with ageing. While it is clear that there are a variety of current treatment options for ED, each of these has drawbacks and contraindications. A better understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in penile erection(More)
This study tested the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibition in mice would result in hypertension characterized by increased agonist-induced vasoconstrictor responsiveness and attenuated endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Administration of N-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), an NO synthase inhibitor (1 g/L, 4 weeks), via drinking water to mice(More)
1. The serotonin transporter (SERT) handles serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) and is blocked by the antidepressant SERT inhibitors fluoxetine and fluvoxamine. Although the importance of SERT in the central nervous system is clear, SERT also functions in the peripheral vasculature. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the vasculature from(More)
Tachyphylaxis or desensitization is frequently observed following angiotensin II type I (AT1) receptor activation by angiotensin II. One of the possible mechanisms contributing to receptor desensitization involves receptor internalization. In addition to clathrin-coated pits/vesicles, caveolae, small invaginations in the plasma membrane rich in cholesterol,(More)