Aurang Z. Khawaja

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UNLABELLED Gadolinium based contrast agents (GBCA) have been linked to the occurrence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in renal impaired patients. The exact interaction between the various different available formulations and occurrence of NSF is not completely understood, but has been postulated. This association has triggered public health advisory(More)
It remains challenging to accurately predict whether an individual arteriovenous fistula (AVF) will mature and be useable for haemodialysis vascular access. Current best practice involves the use of routine clinical assessment and ultrasonography complemented by selective venography and magnetic resonance imaging. The purpose of this literature review is to(More)
BACKGROUND Native or prosthetic arteriovenous (AV) fistulas are preferred for permanent haemodialysis (HD) access. These are marked with circuit steno-occlusive disease leading to dysfunction or even failure. Late failure rates have been reported as high as 50%. Standard angioplasty balloons are an established percutaneous intervention for HD access(More)
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