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Multiagent DNA vaccines for highly pathogenic organisms offer an attractive approach for preventing naturally occurring or deliberately introduced diseases. Few animal studies have compared the feasibility of combining unrelated gene vaccines. Here, we demonstrate that DNA vaccines to four dissimilar pathogens that are known biowarfare agents, Bacillus(More)
The filoviruses Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans for which no vaccines are available. Previously, a priming dose of a DNA vaccine expressing the glycoprotein (GP) gene of MARV followed by boosting with recombinant baculovirus-derived GP protein was found to confer protective immunity to guinea pigs (Hevey(More)
We show that interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM-1), IFITM-2, and IFITM-3 exhibit a broad spectrum of antiviral activity against several members of the Bunyaviridae family, including Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), La Crosse virus, Andes virus, and Hantaan virus, all of which can cause severe disease in humans and animals. We found that RVFV(More)
BACKGROUND The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002 and 2003 affected global health and caused major economic disruption. Adequate animal models are required to study the underlying pathogenesis of SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection and to develop effective vaccines and therapeutics. We report the first findings of(More)
BACKGROUND A striking feature of Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV) infection in nonhuman primates is the rapid depletion of T and NK lymphocytes by apoptosis. In a mouse model of ZEBOV infection, lymphocyte death is a prominent finding; however, the mechanism of death and the lymphocyte subsets that are targeted remain unknown. METHODS We extended the(More)
The early events in Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) have not been completely characterized. Earlier work indicated that CCHFV likely enters cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Here we provide confirmatory evidence for CME entry by showing that CCHFV infection is inhibited in cells treated with Pitstop 2, a drug that specifically and(More)
The Ebola virus (EBOV) envelope glycoprotein (GP) is the primary target of protective immunity. Mature GP consists of two disulfide-linked subunits, GP1 and membrane-bound GP2. GP is highly glycosylated with both N- and O-linked carbohydrates. We measured the influences of GP glycosylation on antigenicity, immunogenicity, and protection by testing DNA(More)
Variola virus and other members of the genus Orthopoxviruses constitute a prominent bioterrorism and public health threat. Treatment with the anti-viral drug cidofovir inhibits replication of orthopoxviruses in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we visualized the effect of cidofovir on viral kinetics in orthopoxvirus infected mice by using whole-body(More)
The cyanobacterial lectin scytovirin (SVN) binds with high affinity to mannose-rich oligosaccharides on the envelope glycoprotein (GP) of a number of viruses, blocking entry into target cells. In this study, we assessed the ability of SVN to bind to the envelope GP of Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV) and inhibit its replication. SVN interacted specifically with(More)
Type I interferons (IFNs) are potent mediators of the innate immune response to viral infection. IFNs released from infected cells bind to a receptor (IFNAR) on neighboring cells, triggering signaling cascades that limit further infection. Subtle variations in amino acids can alter IFNAR binding and signaling outcomes. We used a new gene crossbreeding(More)