Aurélien Bancaud

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The nucleus of eukaryotes is organized into functional compartments, the two most prominent being heterochromatin and nucleoli. These structures are highly enriched in DNA, proteins or RNA, and thus thought to be crowded. In vitro, molecular crowding induces volume exclusion, hinders diffusion and enhances association, but whether these effects are relevant(More)
Chromosome dynamics are recognized to be intimately linked to genomic transactions, yet the physical principles governing spatial fluctuations of chromatin are still a matter of debate. Using high-throughput single-particle tracking, we recorded the movements of nine fluorescently labeled chromosome loci located on chromosomes III, IV, XII, and XIV of(More)
Magnetic tweezers were used to study the mechanical response under torsion of single nucleosome arrays reconstituted on tandem repeats of 5S positioning sequences. Regular arrays are extremely resilient and can reversibly accommodate a large amount of supercoiling without much change in length. This behavior is quantitatively described by a molecular model(More)
The technique of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) was introduced in the mid-1970s to study the diffusion of biomolecules in living cells. For several years, it was used mainly by a small number of biophysicists who had developed their own photobleaching systems. Since the mid-1990s, FRAP has gained increasing popularity because of the(More)
Chromatin is a multiscale structure on which transcription, replication, recombination and repair of the genome occur. To fully understand any of these processes at the molecular level under physiological conditions, a clear picture of the polymorphic and dynamic organization of chromatin in the eukaryotic nucleus is required. Recent studies indicate that a(More)
In their recent paper in Cell, Furuyama and Henikoff (2009) report that nucleosomes in centromeres may be right-handed, that is, they wrap DNA in a right-handed manner and induce positive supercoils. This raises intriguing new questions, such as how centromeric histone variants may be assembled into right-handed particles, and why chromatin would retain(More)
Using magnetic tweezers to investigate the mechanical response of single chromatin fibers, we show that fibers submitted to large positive torsion transiently trap positive turns at a rate of one turn per nucleosome. A comparison with the response of fibers of tetrasomes (the [H3-H4](2) tetramer bound with approximately 50 bp of DNA) obtained by depletion(More)
Kinetics of compaction on single DNA molecules are studied by fluorescence videomicroscopy in the presence of 1), Xenopus egg extracts and 2), purified nucleosome reconstitution systems using a combination of histones with either the histone chaperone Nucleosome Assembly Protein (NAP-1) or negatively charged macromolecules such as polyglutamic acid and RNA.(More)
Chromosomes architecture is viewed as a key component of gene regulation, but principles of chromosomal folding remain elusive. Here we used high-throughput live cell microscopy to characterize the conformation and dynamics of the longest chromosome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (XII). Chromosome XII carries the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) that defines the(More)
We present an experimental study of the microfluidic electrophoresis of long DNA in self-assembling matrixes of magnetic bead columns. Results are presented for the rapid separation of lambda-phage, 2lambda-DNA, and bacteriophage T4 DNA, where separation resolutions greater than 2 between lambda and T4 are achieved in times as short as 150 s. The use of a(More)