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Recent studies have shown that honeybees flying through short, narrow tunnels with visually textured walls perform waggle dances that indicate a much greater flight distance than that actually flown. These studies suggest that the bee's "odometer" is driven by the optic flow (image motion) that is experienced during flight. One might therefore expect that,(More)
In contrast to vertebrates the involvement of glutamate and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in brain functions in insects is both poorly understood and somewhat controversial. Here, we have examined the behavioural effects of two noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists, memantine (low affinity) and MK-801 (high affinity), on learning and memory in(More)
The robustness and plasticity of working memory were investigated in honey bees by using a delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) paradigm. The findings are summarized as follows: first, performance in the DMTS task decreases as the duration between the presentation of the sample stimulus and the presentation of the comparison stimuli is increased. This decrease(More)
Although caffeine is known to improve alertness and arousal in humans and other mammals, its impacts on specific behaviours, including complex cognitive processes, remain controversial. We reasoned that the availability of an easily manipulable, but behaviourally complex invertebrate organism with a simpler nervous system would be beneficial to this field(More)
The honeybee waggle dance, through which foragers advertise the existence and location of a food source to their hive mates, is acknowledged as the only known form of symbolic communication in an invertebrate. However, the suggestion, that different species of honeybee might possess distinct 'dialects' of the waggle dance, remains controversial.(More)
Although the numerical abilities of many vertebrate species have been investigated in the scientific literature, there are few convincing accounts of invertebrate numerical competence. Honeybees, Apis mellifera, by virtue of their other impressive cognitive feats, are a prime candidate for investigations of this nature. We therefore used the(More)
Recent work has revealed that honeybees determine distance flown by gauging the extent to which the image of the environment moves in the eye as they fly toward their destination. Here we examine the properties of this visually driven 'odometer', by training bees to fly to a feeder in a tunnel lined with a range of different visual patterns, and analysing(More)
Honeybees can easily be trained to perform different types of discrimination tasks under controlled laboratory conditions. This review describes a range of experiments carried out with free-flying forager honeybees under such conditions. The research done over the past 30 or so years suggests that cognitive abilities (learning and perception) in insects are(More)
This paper examines the ramifications of using 3D integration technology on the leakage and timing variability of integrated circuits. We develop models that estimate the outcome of mapping a 2D design onto a 3D stack from a process variation perspective. We statistically prove and experimentally demonstrate that 3D integration is a useful technique to(More)
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