Augusto Cogoli

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Returning astronauts have experienced altered immune function and increased vulnerability to infection during spaceflights dating back to Apollo and Skylab. Lack of immune response in microgravity occurs at the cellular level. We analyzed differential gene expression to find gravity-dependent genes and pathways. We found inhibited induction of 91 genes in(More)
The experimental findings reviewed in this chapter support the following conclusions: Proliferation. Human T-lymphocytes, associated with monocytes as accessory cells, show dramatic changes in the centrifuge, in the clinostat and in space. In free-floating cells the mitogenic response is depressed by 90% in microgravity, whereas in cells attached to a(More)
Endothelial cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of many diseases and are highly sensitive to low gravity conditions. Using a three-dimensional random positioning machine (clinostat) we investigated effects of simulated weightlessness on the human EA.hy926 cell line (4, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h) and addressed the impact of exposure to VEGF (10 ng/ml).(More)
This study tested the hypothesis that transcription of immediate early genes is inhibited in T cells activated in μg. Immunosuppression during spaceflight is a major barrier to safe, long-term human space habitation and travel. The goals of these experiments were to prove that μg was the cause of impaired T cell activation during spaceflight, as well as(More)
Experiments conducted in space in the last two decades have shown that T lymphocyte activation in vitro is remarkably reduced in microgravity. The data indicate that a failure of the expression of the interleukin-2 receptor (measured as protein secreted in the supernatant) is responsible of the loss of activity. To test such hypothesis we have studied the(More)
In this paper we discuss the effect of microgravity on T cells and we present the data of studies with two new machines for 0 g simulations. Several experiments in space show that mitogenic T cell activation is lost at 0 g. Immunocytochemistry indicates that such effect is associated with changes of the cytoskeleton. Biochemical studies suggest that the(More)
Cultures of human lymphocytes exposed in microgravity to the mitogen concanavalin A showed less than 3 percent of the activation of ground controls. This result supports the hypothesis, based on simulations at low g and experiments at high g, that microgravity depresses whereas high gravity enhances cell proliferation rates. The effects of gravity are(More)
  • A Cogoli
  • Journal of gravitational physiology : a journal…
  • 1996
The study of the function of immune cells in microgravity has been studied for more than 20 years in several laboratories. It is clear today that the immune system is depressed in more than 50% of the astronauts during and after space flight and that the activation of T lymphocytes by mitogens in vitro changes dramatically. This article gives an overview(More)
Cultures of human lymphocytes were exposed to the mitogen concanavalin A in a low-G environment generated by a fast rotating clinostat. DNA-synthesis was determined by incorporation of 3H-thymidine as the parameter for activation, cell ultrastructure was analyzed by electron microscopy, and cell movements were recorded by a cinecamera. The results were(More)
Human peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes were activated with concanavalin A with or without exogenous recombinant interleukin 1 (IL-1) alone or IL-1 + interleukin 2 (IL-2) under microgravity conditions to test the hypothesis that lack of production of IL-1 by monocytes is the cause of the near total loss of activation observed earlier on several(More)