Augustine U. Orjih

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To evaluate how chloroquine kills malaria parasites, hemoglobin catabolism was studied at the various stages of intraerythrocytic parasite development. We found that hemoglobin catabolism is switched off whenPlasmodium falciparum parasites mature to the late trophozoite or early schizont stages and is switched on again during the ring stage. When hemoglobin(More)
Synchronized Plasmodium falciparum parasites were grown in erythrocytic culture for measurement of malaria pigment (hemozoin) production using a simple method based on the insolubility of beta-hematin, the principal pigment of hemozoin. In the last 44 h of the life cycle, one strain (chloroquine-susceptible) incorporated an average of 960 pmol of(More)
Malaria parasites isolated from mouse erythrocytes are lysed by ferriprotoporphyrin IX chloride (hemin) or by a chloroquine-hemin complex in amounts that could be produced by release of less than 0.1 percent of the heme in erythrocytic hemoglobin. This effect of hemin may explain the protection against malaria provided by thalassemia and other conditions(More)
The effect of haemoglobin genotype on the level of chloroquine in the erythrocytes of homozygous sickle-cell (SS), normal (AA), and heterozygous (AS) subjects was investigated in vivo and in vitro. Two hours after a single oral dose of chloroquine its level in plasma was consistently lower in SS than in AA subjects. In contrast, its level in the(More)
The preparation and storage of Plasmodium berghei sporozoites for immunization purposes is described. The sporozoites were harvested from the salivary glands of infected mosquitoes, and maintained in cold tissue culture medium M199 with or without mouse serum. They were irradiated and frozen either at -75 degrees C or in liquid nitrogen. After various(More)
The first successful in vitro cultivation of Plasmodium falciparum in sickle cells in a gas mixture containing 3% oxygen, 4% carbon dioxide and 93% nitrogen has been reported recently, contradicting earlier claims that the parasite does not multiply continuously in sickle cell trait (HbAS) and sickle cell anemia (HbSS) erythrocytes at low oxygen tension.(More)
Plasmodium falciparum lysate, prepared from 2.7 x 10(7) ring-infected erythrocytes and incubated with hemoglobin in sodium acetate at pH 5, incorporated a mean of 1.6 nmol of ferriprotoporphyrin IX (FP) into hemozoin in 18 to 22 hr. A similar preparation of trophozoite lysate incorporated a mean of 3.6 nmol of FP into hemozoin in 4 to 6 hr. These findings(More)
In an effort to elucidate a mechanism of genetic resistance to malaria, we asked whether a toxic form of heme is included in the excess of ferriprotoporphyrin IX (FP) which has been reported to accumulate as hemichromes in sickle cells. When FP is bound to certain erythrocytic elements, such as native hemoglobin, it is inaccessible to bind chloroquine with(More)
We report a rapid (2-3 hr) in vitro test for chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. The test is based on the inhibition of chloroquine efflux by verapamil; it is performed by diluting infected blood in culture medium and incubating the diluted blood for 60 min at 37 degrees C with 50 nM 3H-chloroquine, with and without 10 microM verapamil. The(More)