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Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are prototypes for the pharmaceutically important family of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels. Here we present atomic resolution structures of nicotine and carbamylcholine binding to AChBP, a water-soluble homolog of the ligand binding domain of nicotinic receptors and their family members, GABAA, GABAC, 5HT3 serotonin,(More)
Pentameric ligand gated ion-channels, or Cys-loop receptors, mediate rapid chemical transmission of signals. This superfamily of allosteric transmembrane proteins includes the nicotinic acetylcholine (nAChR), serotonin 5-HT3, gamma-aminobutyric-acid (GABAA and GABAC) and glycine receptors. Biochemical and electrophysiological information on the prototypic(More)
Nicotine enhances attention and working memory by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is critical for these cognitive functions and is also rich in nAChR expression. Specific cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying nicotine's effects on cognition remain elusive. Here we show that nicotine exposure increases(More)
Schizophrenia is an idiopathic mental disorder with a heritable component and a substantial public health impact. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) for schizophrenia beginning with a Swedish national sample (5,001 cases and 6,243 controls) followed by meta-analysis with previous schizophrenia GWAS (8,832 cases and 12,067(More)
Recent studies have begun to focus on the signals that regulate axonal protein synthesis and the functional significance of localized protein synthesis. However, identification of proteins that are synthesized in mammalian axons has been mainly based on predictions. Here, we used axons purified from cultures of injury-conditioned adult dorsal root ganglion(More)
Epidemiological studies indicate that there is an increased likelihood for the development of nicotine addiction when cigarette smoking starts early during adolescence. These observations suggest that adolescence could be a "critical" ontogenetic period, during which drugs of abuse have distinct effects responsible for the development of dependence later in(More)
There is accumulating evidence that glial cells actively modulate neuronal synaptic transmission. We identified a glia-derived soluble acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP), which is a naturally occurring analogue of the ligand-binding domains of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Like the nAChRs, it assembles into a homopentamer with(More)
A neuropsychological hallmark of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the reduced ability to tolerate delay of reinforcement, leading to impulsive choice. Genetic association studies have implicated several genes involved in dopaminergic neurotransmission in ADHD. In this study, we investigated whether differences in the expression level of(More)
Among the best-replicated and most heritable endophenotypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are deficits in attention, inhibitory response control and larger intra-individual variability in response latencies. Here, we explored the presence of these heritable ADHD endophenotypes in two commonly used inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J and(More)
Persistent tobacco use and excessive alcohol consumption are major public health concerns worldwide. Both alcohol and nicotine dependence (AD, ND) are genetically influenced complex disorders that exhibit a high degree of comorbidity. To identify gene variants contributing to one or both of these addictions, we first conducted a pooling-based genomewide(More)