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Nicotine enhances attention and working memory by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is critical for these cognitive functions and is also rich in nAChR expression. Specific cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying nicotine's effects on cognition remain elusive. Here we show that nicotine exposure increases(More)
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are prototypes for the pharmaceutically important family of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels. Here we present atomic resolution structures of nicotine and carbamylcholine binding to AChBP, a water-soluble homolog of the ligand binding domain of nicotinic receptors and their family members, GABAA, GABAC, 5HT3 serotonin,(More)
Schizophrenia is an idiopathic mental disorder with a heritable component and a substantial public health impact. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) for schizophrenia beginning with a Swedish national sample (5,001 cases and 6,243 controls) followed by meta-analysis with previous schizophrenia GWAS (8,832 cases and 12,067(More)
Recent studies have begun to focus on the signals that regulate axonal protein synthesis and the functional significance of localized protein synthesis. However, identification of proteins that are synthesized in mammalian axons has been mainly based on predictions. Here, we used axons purified from cultures of injury-conditioned adult dorsal root ganglion(More)
Among the best-replicated and most heritable endophenotypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are deficits in attention, inhibitory response control and larger intra-individual variability in response latencies. Here, we explored the presence of these heritable ADHD endophenotypes in two commonly used inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J and(More)
There is accumulating evidence that glial cells actively modulate neuronal synaptic transmission. We identified a glia-derived soluble acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP), which is a naturally occurring analogue of the ligand-binding domains of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Like the nAChRs, it assembles into a homopentamer with(More)
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common complex trait with enormous public health significance. As part of the Genetic Association Information Network initiative of the US Foundation for the National Institutes of Health, we conducted a genome-wide association study of 435 291 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 1738 MDD cases and 1802(More)
Associative learning processes have an important role in the initiation and persistence of heroin-seeking. Here we show in a rat self-administration model that reexposure to cues previously associated with heroin results in downregulation of AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 and concomitant upregulation of clathrin-coat assembly protein AP2ml in synaptic(More)
CKAMP44, identified here by a proteomic approach, is a brain-specific type I transmembrane protein that associates with AMPA receptors in synaptic spines. CKAMP44 expressed in Xenopus oocytes reduced GluA1- and A2-mediated steady-state currents, but did not affect kainate- or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated currents. Mouse hippocampal CA1(More)
Persistent tobacco use and excessive alcohol consumption are major public health concerns worldwide. Both alcohol and nicotine dependence (AD, ND) are genetically influenced complex disorders that exhibit a high degree of comorbidity. To identify gene variants contributing to one or both of these addictions, we first conducted a pooling-based genomewide(More)