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Sorting nexin 8 (SNX8) belongs to the sorting nexin protein family, whose members are involved in endocytosis and endosomal sorting and signaling. The function of SNX8 has so far been unknown. Here, we have investigated the role of SNX8 in intracellular transport of the bacterial toxin Shiga toxin (Stx) and the plant toxin ricin. After being endocytosed,(More)
Ricin is transported from early endosomes and/or the recycling compartment to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and subsequently to the endoplasmic recticulum (ER) before it enters the cytosol and intoxicates cells. We have investigated the role of the Rab6 isoforms in retrograde transport of ricin using both oligo- and vector-based RNAi assays. Ricin transport(More)
The bacterial toxin Shiga toxin (Stx) is transported retrogradely from early endosomes to the Golgi apparatus on its way to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the cytosol. In this study we explored the functions of the two phosphoinositide binding proteins Sorting nexin 1 (SNX1) and Sorting nexin 2 (SNX2) in endosomal sorting of the toxin. When Vero cells(More)
The plant toxin ricin is transported from the plasma membrane via early endosomes and the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum. From this compartment, it enters the cytosol and inhibits protein synthesis. Lipid phosphorylation is an important regulator of vesicular transport, and in the present study we have investigated the role of the(More)
Annexins constitute a family of calcium and membrane binding proteins. As annexin A1 and A2 have previously been linked to various membrane trafficking events, we initiated this study to investigate the role of these annexins in the uptake and intracellular transport of the bacterial Shiga toxin (Stx) and the plant toxin ricin. Once endocytosed, both toxins(More)
Clathrin-dependent endocytosis is a main entry mechanism for the glycolipid-binding Shiga toxin (Stx), although clathrin-independent pathways are also involved. Binding of Stx to its receptor Gb3 not only is essential for Stx retrograde transport to the endoplasmic reticulum and toxicity but also activates signaling through the tyrosine kinase Syk. We(More)
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