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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease is associated with loss of CD4(+) T cells, chronic immune activation, and progressive immune dysfunction. HIV-specific responses, particularly those of(More)
The immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) directly upregulates production of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in acutely as well as in chronically infected cells of monocytic lineage. In(More)
Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), which are the natural ligands of the CC-chemokine receptor CCR5,(More)
In the present study we have observed that interleukin (IL) 1 alpha or IL-1 beta directly induced expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the latently infected human promonocytic cell(More)