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Sound is encoded within the auditory portion of the inner ear, the cochlea, after propagating down its length as a traveling wave. For over half a century, vibratory measurements to study cochlear traveling waves have been made using invasive approaches such as laser Doppler vibrometry. Although these studies have provided critical information regarding the(More)
Broadband interferometry is an attractive technique for the detection of cellular motions because it provides depth-resolved phase information via coherence gating. We present a phase-sensitive technique called spectral-domain phase microscopy (SDPM). SDPM is a functional extension of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography that allows for the(More)
This article describes a point-of-care (POC) system--comprising a microfluidic, paper-based analytical device (micro-PAD) and a hand-held optical colorimeter--for quantifying the concentration of analytes in biological fluids. The micro-PAD runs colorimetric assays, and consists of paper that has been (i) patterned to expose isolated regions of hydrophilic(More)
The development of practical strategies for the assembly of objects into 3D arrays is an unsolved problem. This paper describes the use of magnetic levitation (MagLev) to guide the self-assembly of millimeter-to centimeter-scale dia magnetic objects, which we call " components " , each programmed by shape and distribution of density, into 3D assemblies and(More)
This article describes a new procedure for generating and transmitting a message--a sequence of optical pulses--by aligning a mask (an opaque sheet containing transparent "windows") below a microfluidic channel in which flows an opaque continuous fluid containing transparent droplets. The optical mask encodes the message as a unique sequence of windows that(More)
Resolution is an important figure of merit for imaging systems. We designed, fabricated and tested an optical phantom that mimics the simplicity of an Air Force Test Chart but can characterize both the axial and lateral resolution of optical coherence tomography systems. The phantom is simple to fabricate, simple to use and functions in versatile(More)
This paper describes the behavior of bubbles suspended in a carrier liquid and moving within microfluidic networks of different connectivities. A single-phase continuum fluid, when flowing in a network of channels, partitions itself among all possible paths connecting the inlet and outlet. The flow rates along different paths are determined by the(More)
Although self-assembly (SA) in two dimensions (2D) is highly developed (especially using surfaces as a templates), SA in three dimensions (3D) has been more difficult. This paper describes a strategy for SA in 3D of diamagnetic plastic objects (mm-to cm-sized in this work, but in principle in sizes from $10 mm to m) supported in a paramagnetic fluid by a(More)
We demonstrate the first automated, volumetric mosaicing algorithm for optical coherence tomography (OCT) that both accommodates 6-degree-of-freedom rigid transformations and implements a bundle adjustment step amenable to generating large fields of view with endoscopic and freehand imaging systems. Our mosaicing algorithm exploits the known, rigid(More)
This paper describes several noncontact methods of orienting objects in 3D space using Magnetic Levitation (MagLev). The methods use two permanent magnets arranged coaxially with like poles facing and a container containing a paramagnetic liquid in which the objects are suspended. Absent external forcing, objects levitating in the device adopt predictable(More)