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B lymphocytes can be triggered in lymph nodes by nonopsonized antigens (Ag), potentially in their native form. However, the mechanisms that promote encounter of B lymphocytes with unprocessed antigens in lymph nodes are still elusive. We show here that antigens are detected in B cells in the draining lymph nodes of mice injected with live, but not fixed,(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) impairs major functions of macrophages but the molecular basis for this defect remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that macrophages infected with HIV-1 were unable to respond efficiently to phagocytic triggers and to clear bacteria. The maturation of phagosomes, defined by the presence of late endocytic(More)
In the search for inhibitors of the replication of RNA viruses, including hepatitis C virus (HCV), the hitherto unknown 4'-C-azidomethyl-beta-D-ribofuranosyl nucleosides of the five naturally occurring nucleic acid bases have been synthesized and their antiviral properties examined. These 4'-C-branched nucleosides were stereospecifically prepared by(More)
Macrophages are phagocytic cells that play a major role at the crossroads between innate and specific immunity. They can be infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and because of their resistance to its cytopathic effects they can be considered to be persistent viral reservoirs. In addition, HIV-infected macrophages exhibit defective functions(More)
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