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The colonic epithelium self-renews every 3 to 5 d, but our understanding of the underlying processes preserving wound healing from carcinogenesis remains incomplete. Here, we demonstrate that Nod-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 6 (NLRP6) suppresses inflammation and carcinogenesis by regulating tissue repair. NLRP6 was primarily produced by(More)
OBJECTIVE Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables accurate assessment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), but its main limitation is the need for bowel preparation. Diffusion-weighted imaging is feasible in Crohn's disease. We evaluated the accuracy of MRI in combination with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI-MRI) without oral or rectal preparation in(More)
Instability in the composition of gut bacterial communities (dysbiosis) has been linked to common human intestinal disorders, such as Crohn's disease and colorectal cancer. Here, we show that dysbiosis caused by Nod2 deficiency gives rise to a reversible, communicable risk of colitis and colitis-associated carcinogenesis in mice. Loss of either Nod2 or RIP2(More)
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease of the mucosal layer, and activity of the disease is assumed to be related to mucosal appearance. Mucosal healing has emerged as a major therapeutic goal in UC. Whether mucosal healing should be the ultimate therapeutic goal in these patients is unknown. Even when endoscopy suggests mucosal healing, evidence of(More)
The 2007 World Health Organization histologic grading of meningiomas is associated with recurrence and clinical outcome. However, distinction of grade I from grade II (atypical) meningiomas can be challenging. In the World Health Organization classification, there are 4 parameters on the basis of which grade II status can be determined: mitotic rate,(More)
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS Esophageal squamous papilloma (ESP) is a rare lesion. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of ESP in northeastern France and the risk of associated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS The charts of 78 patients who were diagnosed with ESP between January 2005 and February 2013 at three hospitals in(More)
Immunohistochemistry to active caspase-3, recently recommended for apoptosis detection, is inappropriate to detect apoptosis involving caspase-7. Cleavage of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1), a major substrate of both caspases, is a valuable marker of apoptosis. Apoptosis evaluation induced in vitro either by paclitaxel or by photodynamic treatment(More)
Crohn's disease (CD), a major form of human inflammatory bowel disease, is characterized by primary immunodeficiencies. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is essential for intestinal homeostasis in response to both dietary- and microbiota-derived signals. Its role in host defense remains unknown, however. We(More)
We examined the arterial phenotype of mice lacking alpha(1)-integrin (alpha(1)(-/-)) at baseline and after 4 wk of ANG II or norepinephrine (NE) administration. Arterial mechanical properties were determined in the carotid artery (CA). Integrin expression, MAPK kinases, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were assessed in the aorta. No change in arterial(More)
BACKGROUND Assessment of disease activity in UC is important for designing an optimal therapeutic strategy. No single histology score is considered optimum. The aim of this study was to compare intraobserver reproducibility and the interobserver agreement of available histological UC activity indexes. METHODS One hundred and two biopsy specimens(More)