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In sub-Saharan Africa, invasive nontyphoid Salmonella (NTS) infection is a common and often fatal complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mediates tolerance to the cytotoxic effects of heme during malarial hemolysis but might impair resistance to NTS by limiting production of bactericidal reactive oxygen(More)
Malaria is widely reported to suppress immune responses to heterologous antigens, including vaccines, but the evidence base for this assumption is patchy and confusing. Here we review the evidence for malaria-mediated suppression of responses to vaccination and conclude that: there is evidence of impairment of responses to heterologous polysaccharide(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the normal range for carbon monoxide concentrations in the exhaled breath of subjects in the emergency department and to develop a protocol for the use of a breath analyser to detect abnormal carbon monoxide exposure. METHODS A hand held breath analyser was used to measure end expiratory carbon monoxide concentrations in 382(More)
Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is an essential enzyme induced by heme and multiple stimuli associated with critical illness. In humans, polymorphisms in the HMOX1 gene promoter may influence the magnitude of HO-1 expression. In many diseases including murine malaria, HO-1 induction produces protective anti-inflammatory effects, but observations from patients(More)
A systematic literature review identified the most frequently cited medical consequences of teenage pregnancy as anaemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, low birth weight, prematurity, intra-uterine growth retardation and neonatal mortality. Critical appraisal suggested that increased risks of these outcomes were predominantly caused by the social,(More)
It is not known why people are more susceptible to bacterial infections such as nontyphoid Salmonella during and after a malaria infection, but in mice, malarial hemolysis impairs resistance to nontyphoid Salmonella by impairing the neutrophil oxidative burst. This acquired neutrophil dysfunction is a consequence of induction of the cytoprotective,(More)
Heme oxygenase (HO) is thought to be induced in severe malaria, but the pathophysiologic consequences have not been examined. It is induced by hemolysis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. It degrades heme, producing carbon monoxide (CO), which causes elevated levels of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). In a prospective study of 1,520 children admitted to a Kenyan(More)
Severe malaria defines individuals at increased risk of death from their infection. Proposed pathogenic mechanisms include parasite sequestration, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Severe malaria is not a single entity, manifesting with distinct syndromes such as severe anemia, severe respiratory distress or coma, each characterized by differences(More)