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Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but an obese/diabetic animal model that mimics human NASH remains undefined. We examined the induction of steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis in obese and type 2 diabetic db/db mice in a nutritional model of NASH and determined the relationship of the expressions of(More)
Feeding mice a methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet serves as an experimental animal model for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In the present study we examined the effect of exposing AML-12 hepatocytes to MCD culture medium in regard to mechanisms of steatosis and alanine amino-transferase (ALT) release. Cells exposed to MCD medium developed(More)
The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is poorly defined. Feeding mice a diet deficient in methionine and choline (MCD diet) induces experimental NASH. Osteopontin (OPN) is a Th1 cytokine that plays an important role in several fibroinflammatory diseases. We examined the role of OPN in the development of experimental NASH. A/J mice were fed(More)
BACKGROUND We previously reported that hypoxia induces the proliferation of cultured mesangial cells mediated by the stimulation of intracellular calcium and the activation of protein kinase C (PKC). In the present study, we examined the roles of mesangial cell specific growth factors (platelet-derived growth factor and endothelin-1) and osteopontin (OPN)(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Feeding mice a methionine choline deficient (MCD) diet serves as a nutritional model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH and alcohol-induced steatohepatitis are histologically similar, suggesting a similar pathogenesis. Pentoxifylline (PTX) attenuates TNF-alpha production, acts as an antioxidant and decreases mortality in alcoholic(More)
The effect of hypoxia on the proliferation of cultured rat mesangial cells was examined. To evaluate the underlying signaling mechanisms, the roles of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) and protein kinase C (PKC) were determined. Quiescent cultures were exposed to hypoxia (3% O2) or normoxia (18% O2), and [3H]thymidine incorporation, cell number, [Ca2+]i, and(More)
Incubation of basolateral membranes obtained from control rat kidney cortex in the presence of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) increased (Ca2+ + Mg2+) ATPase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Such response was absent in membranes obtained from animals made diabetic by streptozotocin injection (65 mg/kg, iv). The differential responses in the ATPase(More)
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) inhibited the growth of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. The tumor promoting, phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) also retarded A431 cell growth. Addition of both TPA and EGF inhibited cell growth in an additive or synergistic manner depending upon the initial plating density of the cultures. EGF(More)
The present study utilized [15N]glutamine labeled at amide (5-N) and amino (2-N) groups to analyze the metabolic fate of glutamine nitrogen in basal and in acute pH regulation of ammoniagenesis. One-hour incubation of LLC-PK1 cultures in a media of pH 7.4, 7.0, or 7.6 containing either [5-15N]glutamine or [2-15N]glutamine resulted in parallel alterations in(More)
1. Abstract Many industrial design optimization and stochastic analysis problems have the following common features: (i) the response functions are evaluated as a result of expensive numerical computations, and (ii) function values may contain some level of numerical noise. In this paper these features are addressed by the use of high quality approximations(More)