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Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but an obese/diabetic animal model that mimics human NASH remains undefined. We examined the induction of steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis in obese and type 2 diabetic db/db mice in a nutritional model of NASH and determined the relationship of the expressions of(More)
The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is poorly defined. Feeding mice a diet deficient in methionine and choline (MCD diet) induces experimental NASH. Osteopontin (OPN) is a Th1 cytokine that plays an important role in several fibroinflammatory diseases. We examined the role of OPN in the development of experimental NASH. A/J mice were fed(More)
1. Abstract Many industrial design optimization and stochastic analysis problems have the following common features: (i) the response functions are evaluated as a result of expensive numerical computations, and (ii) function values may contain some level of numerical noise. In this paper these features are addressed by the use of high quality approximations(More)
We examined the effect of hypoxia and high glucose (HG) on ANG II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor expression and proliferation in cultured vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells. Exposure of quiescent cells to hypoxia in a serum-free DME-Ham's F-12 medium for 6-24 h induced a progressive increase in AT(1) mRNA expression. Exposure of cells to 24 h of hypoxia also(More)
Feeding mice a methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet serves as an experimental animal model for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In the present study we examined the effect of exposing AML-12 hepatocytes to MCD culture medium in regard to mechanisms of steatosis and alanine amino-transferase (ALT) release. Cells exposed to MCD medium developed(More)
The molecular mechanism(s) by which high glucose induces fibronectin expression via G-protein activation in the kidney are largely unknown. This investigation describes the effect of high glucose (HG) on a small GTP-binding protein, Rap1b, expression and activation, and the relevance of protein kinase C (PKC) and Raf pathways in fibronectin synthesis in(More)
Uncertainty is inevitable in any design process. The uncertainty could be due to the variations in geometry of the part, material properties or due to the lack of knowledge about the phenomena being modeled itself. Deterministic design optimization does not take uncertainty into account and worst case scenario assumptions lead to vastly over conservative(More)
Several observations now support the view that the sympathetic system actively participates in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Since norepinephrine (NE)-containing neurons involved in cardiovascular regulation in the brain are known to coexist with neuropeptide Y (NPY), it is possible that a functional interaction between NPY and NE exists(More)
We examined the effect of hypoxia and high glucose (HG) on Ang II type I (AT 1) receptor expression and proliferation in cultured vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells. Quiescent cells exposed to hypoxia in a serum-free DME/F12 medium for 6-24 hours induced a progressive increase in AT 1 mRNA expression. Cells exposed to 24 hours of hypoxia also resulted in a(More)