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Based on evidence of abnormalities in axon thickness and neuronal disorganization, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is commonly considered to be a condition resulting from neuronal dysfunction. Yet, recent findings suggest that non-neuronal cell types also contribute to ASD pathology. To investigate the role of glial cells in ASD, a combination of protein and(More)
Glutamate receptors are promising drug targets for the treatment of urgent suicide ideation and chronic major depressive disorder (MDD) that may lead to suicide completion. Antagonists of glutamatergic NMDA receptors reduce depressive symptoms faster than traditional antidepressants, with beneficial effects occurring within hours. Glutamate is the prominent(More)
Neurotoxin induced nerve cell degeneration has been studied in sensory ganglia of newborn and in the area postrema of adult rats following the administration of the selective sensory neurotoxin, capsaicin and the amino acid excitotoxin, glutamic acid, respectively. Light microscopic histochemical, autoradiographic, electroncytochemical and X-ray(More)
Telomere shortening is observed in peripheral mononuclear cells from patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Whether this finding and its biological causes impact the health of the brain in MDD is unknown. Brain cells have differing vulnerabilities to biological mechanisms known to play a role in accelerating telomere shortening. Here, two glia cell(More)
Previous findings from this laboratory demonstrating changes in dopamine (DA) transporter and D2 receptors in the amygdaloid complex of subjects with major depression indicate that disruption of dopamine neurotransmission to the amygdala may contribute to behavioral symptoms associated with depression. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to investigate(More)
The noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) is the principal source of brain norepinephrine, a neurotransmitter thought to play a major role in the pathology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and in the therapeutic action of many antidepressant drugs. The goal of this study was to identify potential mediators of brain noradrenergic dysfunction in MDD. Bone(More)
BACKGROUND Norepinephrine and glutamate are among several neurotransmitters implicated in the neuropathology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Glia deficits have also been demonstrated in people with MDD, and glia are critical modulators of central glutamatergic transmission. We studied glia in men with MDD in the region of the brain (locus coeruleus; LC)(More)
Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is a versatile computer-assisted dissection method that permits collection of tissue samples with a remarkable level of anatomical resolution. LCM's application to the study of human brain pathology is growing, although it is still relatively underutilized, compared with other areas of research. The present study examined(More)
BACKGROUND The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a brain area involved in modulating behavior associated with social interaction, disruption of which is a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Functional brain imaging studies demonstrate abnormalities of the ACC in ASD as compared to typically developing control patients. However, little is known(More)