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Single-molecule force spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate the forces and motions associated with biological molecules and enzymatic activity. The most common force spectroscopy techniques are optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy. Here we describe these techniques and illustrate them with examples(More)
Novel thermophilic crenarchaea have been observed in Fe(III) oxide microbial mats of Yellowstone National Park (YNP); however, no definitive work has identified specific microorganisms responsible for the oxidation of Fe(II). The objectives of the current study were to isolate and characterize an Fe(II)-oxidizing member of the Sulfolobales observed in(More)
The N-myc proto-oncogene is expressed in many organs of the mouse embryo, suggesting that it has multiple functions. A null mutation leads to mid-gestation lethality [1-4], obscuring the later roles of the gene in organogenesis. We have generated a multi-purpose gene alteration by combining the potential for homologous and site-specific recombination in a(More)
The consistency of the Hamilton Depression Scale (HDS) as a measure of the severity of depressive states has been examined when the scale was used weekly during a trial when imipramine. By use of logistic models (Rasch) the consistency of the HDS has been considered across patient-variables as age, sex, plasma levels of imipramine, and diagnosis. The(More)
Work on cytotoxic analogs of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH), somatostatin and bombesin, designed for targeting chemotherapy to peptide receptors on various cancers, is reviewed here as the project is at advanced stages of development and clinical trials are pending. Cytotoxic analogs of LH-RH, AN-152 and AN-207, containing doxorubicin (DOX)(More)
Visual single-unit activity was recorded in the caudate nucleus of halothane-anaesthetized, immobilized, artificially respirated cats. Visually sensitive neurons were found in the dorsolateral part of the caudate body. A majority of the units responded optimally to small spot-like stimuli moving with velocities between 30 and 120 degrees /s. The receptive(More)
The spatial and temporal visual sensitivity to drifting sinusoidal gratings was studied in 75 neurons of the feline anterior ectosylvian visual area (AEV). Extracellular single-unit recordings were performed in halothane-anesthetized (0.6%), immobilized, artificially ventilated cats. Most cells were strongly sensitive to the direction of drifting gratings.(More)
Extracellular microelectrode recordings were carried out on 150 neurons in the anterior ectosylvian sulcal region of halothane-anesthetized, immobilized, artificially ventilated cats. Fifty-nine neurons were visual, 60 were auditory and 31 were bimodal visual-auditory. As the extent of the receptive fields has never been exactly determined, we introduced a(More)
The basal ganglia are widely regarded as structures involved in sensorimotor co-ordination, but little is known about the sensory background of their function. We publish here descriptions of the excitatory sensory responses and receptive field properties of the visual, auditory, somatosensory and multisensory caudate nucleus and substantia nigra pars(More)
A survey was planned for establishing the point prevalence at birth of congenital heart disease and for assessing at the same time the efficacy of a screening for such anomalies. This model included: (1) exact determination of the population under survey; (2) approximately complete ascertainment of all persons in the population studied; (3) identical(More)