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Perlecan is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is expressed in all basement membranes (BMs), in cartilage, and several other mesenchymal tissues during development. Perlecan binds growth factors and interacts with various extracellular matrix proteins and cell adhesion molecules. Homozygous mice with a null mutation in the perlecan gene exhibit normal(More)
Cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinases (cGKs) mediate cellular signaling induced by nitric oxide and cGMP. Mice deficient in the type II cGK were resistant to Escherichia coli STa, an enterotoxin that stimulates cGMP accumulation and intestinal fluid secretion. The cGKII-deficient mice also developed dwarfism that was caused(More)
The vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) is associated with actin filaments and focal adhesions, which form the interface between the cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix. VASP is phosphorylated by both the cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases in a variety of cells, including platelets and smooth muscle cells. Since both the cAMP and cGMP(More)
Regulation of smooth muscle contractility is essential for many important biological processes such as tissue perfusion, cardiovascular haemostasis and gastrointestinal motility. While an increase in calcium initiates smooth muscle contraction, relaxation can be induced by cGMP or cAMP. cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) has been suggested as a major(More)
The fibroblast integrin alpha11beta1 is a key receptor for fibrillar collagens. To study the potential function of alpha11 in vivo, we generated a null allele of the alpha11 gene. Integrin alpha11(-/-) mice are viable and fertile but display dwarfism with increased mortality, most probably due to severely defective incisors. Mutant incisors are(More)
Beta1 integrins are highly expressed on chondrocytes, where they mediate adhesion to cartilage matrix proteins. To assess the functions of beta1 integrin during skeletogenesis, we inactivated the beta1 integrin gene in chondrocytes. We show here that these mutant mice develop a chondrodysplasia of various severity. beta1-deficient chondrocytes had an(More)
Collagen II is a fibril-forming collagen that is mainly expressed in cartilage. Collagen II-deficient mice produce structurally abnormal cartilage that lacks growth plates in long bones, and as a result these mice develop a skeleton without endochondral bone formation. Here, we report that Col2a1-null mice are unable to dismantle the notochord. This defect(More)
Lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3) is a multifunctional enzyme possessing lysyl hydroxylase (LH), hydroxylysyl galactosyltransferase (GT) and galactosylhydroxylysyl glucosyltransferase (GGT) activities in vitro. To investigate the in vivo importance of LH3-catalyzed lysine hydroxylation and hydroxylysine-linked glycosylations, three different LH3-manipulated mouse(More)
The transcriptional regulation of the murine gene encoding the 67-kDa form of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) was studied by beta-galactosidase histochemistry in transgenic mice carrying fusion genes between progressively longer portions of the 5'-upstream regulatory region of GAD67 and E. coli lacZ. No expression was detected in brains of mice carrying(More)
The pathological changes in osteoarthritis--a degenerative joint disease prevalent among older people--start at the molecular scale and spread to the higher levels of the architecture of articular cartilage to cause progressive and irreversible structural and functional damage. At present, there are no treatments to cure or attenuate the degradation of(More)