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Epilepsy is a devastating and poorly understood disease. Mutations in a secreted neuronal protein, leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1), were reported in patients with an inherited form of human epilepsy, autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF). Here, we report an essential role of LGI1 as an antiepileptogenic ligand. We find(More)
A carbonate system dynamics (CSD) model was developed in a fringing reef on the east coast of Ishigaki Island, southwest Japan, by incorporating organic and inorganic carbon fluxes (photosynthesis and calcification), air–sea gas exchanges, and benthic cover of coral and seagrass into a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The CSD model could reproduce(More)
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) acts as a pacemaker for mammalian circadian rhythms. Receptors for excitatory amino acids like N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA receptors have both been found to play an important role in the transmission of photic information from the retina to the SCN. Therefore, we investigated whether the application of(More)
The effects of aging on neuronal activity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) were examined in hamsters kept under light-dark (LD) or constant light (LL) conditions. The free-running period in wheel-running rhythm of 24-month-old hamsters (24.2 +/- 0.04) was shorter than that of the 2-month-old hamsters (24.4 +/- 0.057). There was a significant difference(More)
BACKGROUND Apolipoprotein E allele epsilon4 (apoE4) is a strong risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Secreted apoE has a critical function in redistributing lipids among central nervous system cells to maintain normal lipid homeostasis. In addition, previous reports have shown that apoE4 is cleaved by a protease in neurons to generate(More)
We investigated the involvement of calmodulin and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in the photic entrainment of circadian rhythms using calmodulin inhibitors such as calmidazolium (CMZ) and trifluoperazine (TFP), and a CaMKII inhibitor, KN-62, in rats. Fos expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of rats induced by photic(More)
The effects of aldosterone and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blockers on presympathetic neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) are well studied. To directly investigate whether aldosterone, eplerenone (an MR blocker), FAD286 (an aldosterone synthase inhibitor) and benzamil (an epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) blocker) affect RVLM neurons, we(More)
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) has been identified as a pacemaker for mammalian circadian rhythms. Excitatory amino acid receptors, especially N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, have been considered to play an important role in the transmission of light information from the retina to the circadian clocks in the SCN. In the present study, we showed(More)