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BACKGROUND The recent determination of complete chloroplast (cp) genomic sequences of various plant species has enabled numerous comparative analyses as well as advances in plant and genome evolutionary studies. In angiosperms, the complete cp genome sequences of about 70 species have been determined, whereas those of only three gymnosperm species, Cycas(More)
We studied the seawater carbon dioxide (CO 2) system in the Palau coral reef by measuring total alkalinity (TA) and total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Variation in the CO 2 system on the reef flat and in the lagoon was analyzed by TA–DIC diagrams, taking into accounts the differing residence times of seawater. CO 2 in the offshore water was relatively(More)
When considering the genetic implications of immigrant gene flow, it is important to evaluate both the proportions of immigrant gametes and their genetic composition. We simultaneously investigated paternal and maternal gene flow in dispersed seeds in a natural population of Pinus densiflora located along a ridge. The paternity and maternity of a total of(More)
A carbonate system dynamics (CSD) model was developed in a fringing reef on the east coast of Ishigaki Island, southwest Japan, by incorporating organic and inorganic carbon fluxes (photosynthesis and calcification), air–sea gas exchanges, and benthic cover of coral and seagrass into a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The CSD model could reproduce(More)
Pine wilt disease is caused by the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which threatens pine forests and forest ecosystems worldwide and causes serious economic losses. In the 40 years since the pathogen was identified, the physiological changes occurring as the disease progresses have been characterized using anatomical and biochemical methods,(More)
Wogon-Sugi has been reported as a cytoplasmically inherited virescent mutant selected from a horticultural variety of Cryptomeria japonica. Although previous studies of plastid structure and inheritance indicated that at least some mutations are encoded by the chloroplast genome, the causative gene responsible for the primary chlorophyll deficiency in(More)
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are an alternative to bi-parental QTL mapping in long-lived perennials. In the present study, we examined the potential of GWAS in conifers using 367 unrelated plus trees of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, which is the most widely planted and commercially important tree species in Japan, and tried to detect significant(More)
Forest trees have ecological and economic importance, and Japanese cedar has highly valued wood attributes. Thus, studies of molecular aspects of wood formation offer practical information that may be used for screening and forward genetics approaches to improving wood quality. After identifying expressed sequence tags in Japanese cedar tissue undergoing(More)
A numerical simulation model of coral polyp photosynthesis, respiration and calcification was developed. The model is constructed with three components (ambient seawater, coelenteron and calcifying fluid), and incorporates photosynthesis, respiration and calcification processes with transcellular ion transport by Ca-ATPase activity and passive transmembrane(More)
Pine wilt disease caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, has been epidemic and has had disastrous impacts on pine forests and forest ecosystems in eastern Asia. Many pine species in this area are susceptible to this disease. Pinus thunbergii is particularly susceptible. In Japan, tree breeders have selected surviving trees from(More)