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Epilepsy is a devastating and poorly understood disease. Mutations in a secreted neuronal protein, leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1), were reported in patients with an inherited form of human epilepsy, autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF). Here, we report an essential role of LGI1 as an antiepileptogenic ligand. We find(More)
BACKGROUND The recent determination of complete chloroplast (cp) genomic sequences of various plant species has enabled numerous comparative analyses as well as advances in plant and genome evolutionary studies. In angiosperms, the complete cp genome sequences of about 70 species have been determined, whereas those of only three gymnosperm species, Cycas(More)
Some lines of evidence have suggested that subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) is a common form of vascular dementia (VaD), and that its pathological changes are the development of ischemic white matter (WM) lesions under chronic hypoperfusion and lacunes. Here, we have developed a novel mouse model of VaD with WM lesions, which was induced by(More)
Fetal tau and tau in paired helical filaments show similar immunoreactivities with several phosphorylation-dependent paired helical filament-polyclonals and monoclonals, suggesting that the two molecules share several distinct phosphorylated epitopes. To make clear the similarities and differences between the two, we have undertaken work to identify the in(More)
Tau in PHF is known to be highly phosphorylated and immunochemical study has indicated the similarity of the phosphorylation between PHF-tau and fetal tau. We have determined the exact phosphorylation sites in both PHF-tau and fetal rat tau by ion-spray mass spectrometry and sequencing of ethanethiol-modified peptides. In PHF-tau, 19 sites have been(More)
Mutations in the human NOTCH3 gene cause cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), but the pathogenic mechanisms of the disorder remain unclear. We investigated the cytotoxic properties of mutant Notch3 using stable cell lines with inducible expression of either wild-type or two mutants p.R133C and(More)
Amyloid beta-protein 1-42 (Abeta42) is believed to play a causative role in the development of Alzheimer disease (AD), although it is a minor part of Abeta. In contrast, Abeta40 is the predominant secreted form of Abeta and recent studies have suggested that Abeta40 has neuroprotective effects and inhibits amyloid deposition. We have reported that(More)
We measured linkage disequilibrium in mostly noncoding regions of Cryptomeria japonica, a conifer belonging to Cupressaceae. Linkage disequilibrium was extensive and did not decay even at a distance of 100 kb. The average estimate of the population recombination rate per base pair was 1.55 × 10(-5) and was <1/70 of that in the coding regions. We discuss the(More)
We studied the seawater carbon dioxide (CO 2) system in the Palau coral reef by measuring total alkalinity (TA) and total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Variation in the CO 2 system on the reef flat and in the lagoon was analyzed by TA–DIC diagrams, taking into accounts the differing residence times of seawater. CO 2 in the offshore water was relatively(More)