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Epilepsy is a devastating and poorly understood disease. Mutations in a secreted neuronal protein, leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1), were reported in patients with an inherited form of human epilepsy, autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF). Here, we report an essential role of LGI1 as an antiepileptogenic ligand. We find(More)
BACKGROUND The recent determination of complete chloroplast (cp) genomic sequences of various plant species has enabled numerous comparative analyses as well as advances in plant and genome evolutionary studies. In angiosperms, the complete cp genome sequences of about 70 species have been determined, whereas those of only three gymnosperm species, Cycas(More)
BACKGROUND Apolipoprotein E allele epsilon4 (apoE4) is a strong risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Secreted apoE has a critical function in redistributing lipids among central nervous system cells to maintain normal lipid homeostasis. In addition, previous reports have shown that apoE4 is cleaved by a protease in neurons to generate(More)
Pine wilt disease is caused by the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which threatens pine forests and forest ecosystems worldwide and causes serious economic losses. In the 40 years since the pathogen was identified, the physiological changes occurring as the disease progresses have been characterized using anatomical and biochemical methods,(More)
Side population (SP) cells in cancers, including multiple myeloma, exhibit tumor-initiating characteristics. In the present study, we isolated SP cells from human myeloma cell lines and primary tumors to detect potential therapeutic targets specifically expressed in SP cells. We found that SP cells from myeloma cell lines (RPMI 8226, AMO1, KMS-12-BM,(More)
Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and neuropil threads (NTs), the major hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD), are composed of the microtubule-associated protein tau that has undergone posttranslational modifications, including deamidation and isomerization on asparaginyl or aspartyl residues. Because such modifications represent protein aging, we generated 2(More)
A 53-year-old woman with a history of dyslipidemia presented with medium-grade proteinuria and several years of progressive renal dysfunction. Renal biopsy showed diffuse and global Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodule like nodular mesangial sclerosis, but she had no history of diabetes mellitus, no diabetic retinopathy and normal oral glucose tolerance. Congo red(More)
Nebulin is about 800 kDa filamentous protein that binds the entire thin filament of vertebrate skeletal muscle sarcomeres. Nebulin cannot be isolated from muscle except in a completely denatured form by direct solubilization of myofibrils with SDS because nebulin is hardly soluble under salt conditions. In the present study, nebulin was solubilized by a(More)