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We propose a new learning method, "Generalized Learning Vector Quantization (GLVQ)," in which reference vectors are updated based on the steepest descent method in order to minimize the cost function . The cost function is determined so that the obtained learning rule satisfies the convergence condition. We prove that Kohonen's rule as used in LVQ does not(More)
K-252 compounds (K-252a and b isolated from Nocardiopsis sp. (1) and their synthetic derivatives) were found to inhibit cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases and protein kinase C to various extents. The inhibitions were of the competitive type with respect to ATP. K-252a was a non-selective inhibitor for these three protein kinases with Ki values(More)
In the developing vertebrate hindbrain, the characteristic trajectory of the facial (nVII) motor nerve is generated by caudal migration of the nVII motor neurons. The nVII motor neurons originate in rhombomere (r) 4, and migrate caudally into r6 to form the facial motor nucleus. In this study, using a transgenic zebrafish line that expresses green(More)
SALL1 is a mammalian homolog of the Drosophila region-specific homeotic gene spalt (sal); heterozygous mutations in SALL1 in humans lead to Townes-Brocks syndrome. We have isolated a mouse homolog of SALL1 (Sall1) and found that mice deficient in Sall1 die in the perinatal period and that kidney agenesis or severe dysgenesis are present. Sall1 is expressed(More)
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is an autosomal dominant, neurodegenerative disorder that affects the cerebellum and other areas of the central nervous system. We have devised a novel strategy, the direct identification of repeat expansion and cloning technique (DIRECT), which allows selective detection of expanded CAG repeats and cloning of the genes(More)
Feedback negativity is a negative component of the event-related brain potential observed 250-300 ms after feedback stimuli. The present study investigated the effects of value (correct or incorrect) and reward magnitude (no, small or large) on feedback negativity and P300. Feedback negativity was larger after incorrect feedback than after correct feedback,(More)
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lung disease without proven effective therapy. A multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised phase III clinical trial was conducted in Japanese patients with well-defined IPF to determine the efficacy and safety of pirfenidone, a novel antifibrotic oral agent, over 52 weeks. Of 275 patients(More)
It is proposed that knowledge of motor commands is used to distinguish self-generated sensation from externally generated sensation. In this paper, we show that the sense of self-agency, that is the sense that I am the one who is generating an action, largely depends on the degree of discrepancy resulting from comparison between the predicted and actual(More)
BACKGROUND There is an increased incidence of rare imprinting disorders associated with assisted reproduction technologies (ARTs). The sex-specific epigenetic modifications that are imposed during gametogenesis act as a primary imprint to distinguish maternal and paternal alleles. The most likely candidate for the gametic mark is DNA methylation. However,(More)
Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that several prefrontal regions play critical roles in inhibiting activation of limbic regions during voluntary emotion regulation. The present study aimed to confirm prior findings and to extend them by identifying the frontal neural circuitry associated with regulation of peripheral physiological responses during(More)