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A novel composite right-/left-handed (CRLH) backward-wave coupled-line directional coupler with arbitrary coupling level and broad bandwidth is presented, explained by even/odd-mode analysis, validated by full-wave simulations, and demonstrated by experiments. First, the CRLH-transmission-line (CRLH TL) theory is given, and a microstrip implementation of a(More)
Planar distributed periodic structures of microstrip-line and stripline types, which support left-handed (LH) waves are presented and their negative refractive index (NRI) properties are shown theoretically, numerically, and experimentally. The supported LH wave is fully characterized based on the composite right/left-handed transmission-line theory and the(More)
Sweet taste sensitivity in obese rats with lesions of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) was studied by examining chorda tympani nerve responses to various taste stimuli including sugars. In the early progressive phase of obesity (2 wk after creating VMH lesions), there was no significant difference in the nerve responses to any taste stimulus between(More)
In this paper, we describe the concept, design and implementation of a series of autonomous mobile soccer robots, named "Musashi" robot, which have a mechatronics modular architecture, to participate in the RoboCup middle-size league. In this design methodology, we show that the selection of a proper moving mechanism, a suitable vision system and a(More)
The transmission line approach for the transformation electromagnetics is overviewed. The physical equivalent circuit model for anisotropic materials is presented and it is shown that the permeability tensor components directly correspond to per-unit-length self- and mutual-inductances in the unit cell. The validity of the circuit model is confirmed by(More)
In this paper, a composite right/left-handed (CRLH) slab-type material excited by plane wave is proposed. It is composed of multilayer metallic patterns between dielectric substrates. The equivalent circuit is shown to design a balanced CRLH material. The balanced CRLH characteristics are measured. Next the CRLH material composed of four kinds of cells with(More)