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BACKGROUND/AIMS We developed an idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus grading scale (iNPHGS) to classify a triad of disorders (cognitive impairment, gait disturbance and urinary disturbance) of iNPH with a wide range of severity. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of this scale in 38 patients with iNPH. RESULTS The(More)
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) reportedly exerts beneficial effects on the heart following myocardial infarction and during nonischemic cardiomyopathy, but the precise mechanisms underlying the latter have not been well elucidated. We generated nonischemic cardiomyopathy in mice by injecting them with doxorubicin (15 mg/kg ip). Two weeks later, when cardiac(More)
In patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), re-experiencing the trauma is often induced by external cues in the environment. The cues, which were emotionally neutral for the patients before the traumatic event, become fearful ones after the event. This phenomenon is considered to be associated with fear conditioning. The paradigm was set up so(More)
Six microscopic adenomas found in four patients of nonpolyposis coli (namely, not included in the group of familial polyposis coli) which had been detectable microscopically but not macroscopically, were examined by preparing complete serial section. With respect to the histogenesis of large-intestinal adenomas in nonpolyposis coli, they are considered to(More)
To examine the functional significance and morphological characteristics of starvation-induced autophagy in the adult heart, we made green fluorescent protein-microtubule-associated protein 1-light chain 3 (LC3) transgenic mice starve for up to 3 days. Electron microscopy revealed round, homogenous, electron-dense lipid droplet-like vacuoles that initially(More)
Cognitive impairment in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalous (iNPH) has not been clearly documented. We performed standardized neuropsychological assessments of 21 patients with iNPH and of 42 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) matched to the patients with iNPH 2:1 by age, sex, and Mini-Mental State Examination score. Compared with(More)
Although amlodipine, a long-acting L-type calcium channel blocker, reportedly prevents left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction after myocardial infarction, the mechanism responsible is not yet well understood. Myocardial infarction was induced in mice by ligating the left coronary artery. Treatment of mice with amlodipine (10 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)),(More)
Ischemia is known to potently stimulate autophagy in the heart, which may contribute to cardiomyocyte survival. In vitro, transfection with small interfering RNAs targeting Atg5 or Lamp-2 (an autophagy-related gene necessary, respectively, for the initiation and digestion step of autophagy), which specifically inhibited autophagy, diminished survival among(More)
We investigated the effect of resveratrol, a popular natural polyphenolic compound with antioxidant and proautophagic actions, on postinfarction heart failure. Myocardial infarction was induced in mice by left coronary artery ligation. Four weeks postinfarction, when heart failure was established, the surviving mice were started on 2-week treatments with(More)