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Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a soluble decoy receptor for receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)/osteoclast differentiation factor, inhibits both differentiation and function of osteoclasts. We previously reported that OPG-deficient mice exhibited severe osteoporosis caused by enhanced osteoclastic bone resorption. In the present study,(More)
Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that resorb bone. Osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor (OCIF), also called osteoprotegerin (OPG), acts as a naturally occurring decoy receptor for osteoclast differentiation factor, which mediates an essential signal to osteoclast progenitors for their differentiation into osteoclasts. Here we show that the OCIF/OPG(More)
1. In this study, we investigated the effect of a radical scavenger, MCI-186 (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one), on cerebral damage induced by rat middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion, and further measured the hydroxyl radical level at the ischemic border zone using a microdialysis technique. 2. MCI-186, at a dose of 3 mg/kg per 30 min, was(More)
We constructed a series of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)/simian immunodeficiency virus strain mac (SIVmac) chimeric viruses having vpr and/or nef genes of either HIV-1 or SIVmac based on a chimeric virus with LTRs, gag, pol, vif and vpx derived from SIVmac and tar, rev, vpu and env from HIV-1. All of the chimeric viruses replicated in human and(More)
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is abundant in bone and has complex effects on osteolysis, with both positive and negative effects on osteoclast differentiation, suggesting that it acts via more than one mechanism. Osteoclastogenesis is determined primarily by osteoblast (OB) expression of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related molecule receptor(More)
Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a genetic model of spontaneous development of NIDDM, exhibits hyperglycemic obesity with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance similar to that in humans. It is still unclear whether a defect in the beta-cell proliferation per se is the primary pathogenetic event in OLETF rat. To determine whether it is, we(More)
The mouse obese (ob) gene product (leptin), expressed specifically in adipose cells, regulates energy balance in mice. Both mouse diabetes (db) and rat fatty (fa) gene products are thought to play major roles in leptin signaling pathways in the hypothalamic area. Mutations of these genes in murines result in marked obesity and type II diabetes as part of a(More)
To investigate the mechanism(s) of degradation of leptin, the protein product of ob (obese) gene, we measured serum leptin levels in 70 patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). The median of serum leptin concentrations of 36 male and 34 female patients with CRF were 7.3 ng/ml ranging from 0.5 to 39.0 ng/ml and 34.9 ng/ml from 1.1 to 76.1 ng/ml,(More)
To identify the primary disorder causing diabetes mellitus in a model rat (Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty [OLETF]) with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we studied the temporal relationship between insulin resistance and impairment of pancreatic beta-cell function. Groups of 28 male OLETF rats and male nondiabetic control Long-Evans(More)
Ischemia and reperfusion may damage myocytes and endothelium in jeopardized hearts. This study tested whether (1) endothelial dysfunction (reduced nitric oxide release) exists despite good contractile performance and (2) supplementation of blood cardioplegic solution with nitric oxide precursor L-arginine augments nitric oxide and restores endothelial(More)