Learn More
Cerebral amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) clearance plays a key role in determining the brain level of Abeta; however, its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we investigated cerebral Abeta clearance across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by using the Brain Efflux Index method. [125I]Abeta(1-40) was eliminated from rat brain to circulating blood with a(More)
The risk of idiosyncratic drug toxicity (IDT) is of great concern to the pharmaceutical industry. Current hypotheses based on retrospective studies suggest that the occurrence of IDT is related to covalent binding and daily dose. We determined the covalent binding of 42 radiolabeled drugs in three test systems (human liver microsomes and hepatocytes in(More)
To examine the effect of the fluoroquinolone DX-619 on CYP3A4 and urinary excretion of 6β-hydroxycortisol, an endogenous probe of hepatic CYP3A4 activity, in healthy subjects. The effect of DX-619 on CYP3A4 was examined in human liver microsomes. The apparent formation and renal clearance of 6β-hydroxycortisol (CL6β−OHF and CLrenal,6β−OHF, respectively)(More)
Prasugrel, a prodrug, is a novel and potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation in vivo. The metabolism of prasugrel and the elimination and pharmacokinetics of its active metabolite, 2-[1-[2-cyclopropyl-1-(2-fluorophenyl)-2-oxoethyl]-4-mercapto-3-piperidinylidene]acetic acid (R-138727), three inactive metabolites, and radioactivity were determined in five(More)
The biotransformation of prasugrel to R-138727 (2-[1-2-cyclopropyl-1-(2-fluorophenyl)-2-oxoethyl]-4-mercapto-3-piperidinylidene]acetic acid) involves rapid deesterification to R-95913 (2-[2-oxo-6,7-dihydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridin-5(4H)-yl]-1-cyclopropyl-2-(2-fluorophenyl)ethanone) followed by cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated formation of R-138727, the metabolite(More)
Olmesartan medoxomil (OM) is a prodrug type angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist widely prescribed as an antihypertensive agent. Herein, we describe the identification and characterization of the OM bioactivating enzyme that hydrolyzes the prodrug and converts to its pharmacologically active metabolite olmesartan in human liver and intestine. The(More)
Prasugrel, a novel thienopyridine antiplatelet agent, undergoes rapid hydrolysis in vivo to a thiolactone, R-95913, which is further converted to its thiol-containing, pharmacologically active metabolite, R-138727, by oxidation via cytochromes P450 (P450). We trapped a sulfenic acid metabolite as a mixed disulfide with 2-nitro-5-thiobenzoic acid in an(More)
A thienopyridine antiplatelet agent, prasugrel, is rapidly hydrolyzed to a thiolactone metabolite (R-95913, 2-[2-oxo-6,7-dihydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridin-5(4H)-yl]-1-cyclopropyl-2-(2-fluorophenyl)ethanone). R-95913 is oxidized by hepatic cytochromes P450 to the pharmacologically active metabolite R-138727(More)
Olmesartan medoxomil (OM) is a prodrug-type angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist. The OM-hydrolyzing enzyme responsible for prodrug bioactivation was purified from human plasma through successive column chromatography and was molecularly identified through N-terminal amino acid sequencing, which resulted in a sequence of 20 amino acids identical to(More)
The ground and several electronic excited states of (3aS,7aS)-2-chalcogena-trans-hydrindans were calculated by the symmetry adapted cluster (SAC) and SAC-configuration interaction (SAC-CI) methods. Theoretical electronic excitation spectra and natural circular dichroism (CD) spectra were obtained for these compounds, and the calculated spectra showed good(More)