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CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells have been identified as a population of immunoregulatory T cells, which mediate suppression of CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells by cell-cell contact and not secretion of suppressor cytokines. In this study, we demonstrated that CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells do produce high levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 and interleukin (IL)-10 compared(More)
Molecular mechanisms regulating TGF-β induction of Foxp3 expression and thus induction of iTregs has been the focus of a great deal of study in recent years. It has become clear that this process is influenced by a number of factors as perhaps might be predicted by the fact that there is an overarching need of the immune system to fine-tune response to(More)
Infection of the stomach with Helicobacter pylori is an important risk factor for gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma. Although it has been well established that persistent colonization by H. pylori is associated with adaptive Th1 responses, the innate immune responses leading to these Th1 responses are poorly defined. Recent studies have shown(More)
In this study, we show that a single intranasal dose of a plasmid encoding active transforming growth factor ␤ 1 (pCMV-TGF-␤ 1) prevents the development of T helper cell type 1 (Th1)-mediated experimental colitis induced by the haptenating reagent, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sul-fonic acid (TNBS). In addition, such plasmid administration abrogates TNBS colitis(More)
Interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-␤ 1 are suppressor cytokines that frequently occur together during a regulatory T cell response. Here we used a one gene doxy-cycline (Dox)-inducible plasmid encoding TGF-␤ 1 to analyze this association and test its utility. In initial studies, we showed that intranasal administration of this plasmid(More)
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) is an intracellular epithelial cell protein known to play a role in host defense at mucosal surfaces. Here we show that a ligand specific for NOD1, a peptide derived from peptidoglycan, initiates an unexpected signaling pathway in human epithelial cell lines that results in the production of type I IFN.(More)
Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)2 is a member of the NOD-like receptor family of proteins that initiate inflammatory responses when exposed to ligands derived from bacterial components that gain access to the intracellular milieu. It is thus somewhat paradoxical that polymorphisms in the gene that encode NOD2 (CARD15) that lead to impaired NOD2(More)
Previous studies have shown that the Notch1 and TGF-beta signaling pathways are mutually re-enforcing. Given recent evidence that regulatory T cell (Treg) effector function is mediated by TGF-beta signaling, we investigated whether Notch1 signaling also participated in Treg effector function. Initial studies showed that Notch1 ligands, particularly Jagged1,(More)
In the present study, we show that human self-MHC-reactive (autoreactive) T cell clones are functionally distinct from Ag-specific T cell clones. Self-MHC-reactive T cells exhibited helper function for B cell Ig production when cultured with non-T cells alone, and they exhibit suppressor function when cultured with PWM- or rCD40 ligand (rCD40L)-activated(More)
In this study, we show that a single intranasal dose of a plasmid encoding active transforming growth factor ␤ 1 (pCMV-TGF-␤ 1) prevents the development of T helper cell type 1 (Th1)-mediated experimental colitis induced by the haptenating reagent, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sul-fonic acid (TNBS). In addition, such plasmid administration abrogates TNBS colitis(More)