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CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells have been identified as a population of immunoregulatory T cells, which mediate suppression of CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells by cell-cell contact and not secretion of suppressor cytokines. In this study, we demonstrated that CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells do produce high levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 and interleukin (IL)-10 compared(More)
Recent studies have shown that TGF-beta together with IL-6 induce the differentiation of IL-17-producing T cells (Th17) T cells. We therefore examined whether CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells, i.e., cells previously shown to produce TGF-beta, serve as Th17 inducers. We found that upon activation purified CD25(+) T cells (or sorted GFP(+) T cells(More)
The mechanism by which mutations in CARD15, which encodes nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2), cause Crohn disease is poorly understood. Because signaling via mutated NOD2 proteins leads to defective activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, one proposal is that mutations cause deficient NF-kappa B-dependent T helper type 1 (T(H)1)(More)
To further understand the interaction among GATA-3, Stat4, and T-bet in helper T cell development, we first showed that retroviral expression of GATA-3 in developing Th1 cells suppresses Th1 development through downregulation of Stat4 rather through downregulation of the IL-12Rbeta2 chain. Correspondingly, Stat4 levels are greatly suppressed during(More)
Interleukin (IL)-13 is a major inducer of fibrosis in many chronic infectious and autoimmune diseases. In studies of the mechanisms underlying such induction, we found that IL-13 induces transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1) in macrophages through a two-stage process involving, first, the induction of a receptor formerly considered to function only as a(More)
The NOD (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain) proteins NOD1 and NOD2 have important roles in innate immunity as sensors of microbial components derived from bacterial peptidoglycan. The importance of these molecules is underscored by the fact that mutations in the gene that encodes NOD2 occur in a subpopulation of patients with Crohn's disease, and(More)
In this study, we determined conditions leading to the development of colitis in mice with nucleotide binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) deficiency, a susceptibility factor in Crohn's disease. We found that NOD2-deficient antigen-presenting cells (APCs) produced increased amounts of interleukin (IL)-12 in the presence of ovalbumin (OVA) peptide and(More)
The mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of individuals with caspase recruitment domain 15 (CARD15) mutations and corresponding abnormalities of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) protein to Crohn disease are still poorly understood. One possibility is based on previous studies showing that muramyl dipeptide (MDP) activation of NOD2(More)
The molecular mechanisms underlying retinoic acid (RA) augmentation of T cell receptor (TCR) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced Foxp3 transcription and inhibition of the latter by cytokines such as IL-27 were here shown to be related processes involving modifications of baseline (TGF-β-induced) phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3) binding to a(More)
While Crohn disease (CD) has been clearly identified as a Th1 inflammation, the immunopathogenesis of its counterpart inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis (UC), remains enigmatic. Here we show that lamina propria T (LPT) cells from UC patients produce significantly greater amounts of IL-13 (and IL-5) than control cells and little IFN-gamma,(More)