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Antibodies that block Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling have been used to show that SHH activity is required for the induction of floor plate differentiation by the notochord and independently for the induction of motor neurons by both the notochord and midline neural cells. Motor neuron generation depends on two critical periods of SHH signaling: an early(More)
Somites are fundamental structures within the paraxial mesoderm of the vertebrate embryo that give rise to the vertebrae and muscle of the trunk and tail. Studies of knockout mice and gene expression analyses have shown that the Notch pathway is crucial in establishing the reiterative pattern of somites. A large-scale screen in zebrafish previously(More)
Neuropilin (previously A5) is a cell surface glycoprotein that was originally identified in Xenopus tadpole nervous tissues. In Xenopus, neuropilin is expressed on both the presynaptic and postsynaptic elements in the visual and general somatic sensory systems, suggesting a role in neuronal cell recognition. In this study, we identified a mouse homologue of(More)
We describe here the isolation of chicken PAX6 and PAX7 as members of the PAX gene family expressed in late stages of chick nervous system development. By generating monoclonal antibodies against these PAX molecules, we analyzed their protein distributions in the CNS, neural crest cells and muscle precursor cells. Our detailed description of protein(More)
Members of the Hedgehog (Hh) family of intercellular signaling molecules play crucial roles in animal development. Aberrant regulation of Hh signaling in humans causes developmental defects, and leads to various genetic disorders and cancers. We have characterized a novel regulator of Hh signaling through the analysis of the zebrafish midline mutant iguana(More)
The temporal and spatial regulation of somitogenesis requires a molecular oscillator, the segmentation clock. Through Notch signalling, the oscillation in cells is coordinated and translated into a cyclic wave of expression of hairy-related and other genes. The wave sweeps caudorostrally through the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) and finally arrests at the(More)
Gli proteins regulate the transcription of Hedgehog (Hh) target genes. Genetic studies in mouse have shown that Gli1 is not essential for embryogenesis, whereas Gli2 acts as an activator of Hh target genes. In contrast, misexpression studies in Xenopus and cultured cells have suggested that Gli1 can act as an activator of Hh-regulated genes, whereas Gli2(More)
Leopard, a well-known zebrafish mutant that has a spotted skin pattern instead of stripes, is a model for the study of pigment patterning. To understand the mechanisms underlying stripe formation, as well as the spot variation observed in leopard, we sought to identify the gene responsible for this phenotype. Using positional cloning, we identified the(More)
A variety of humoral factors modulate the osteoclastogenesis. Receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) expressed on osteoblast/stromal lineage cells plays a pivotal role to transduce an essential differentiation signal to osteoclast lineage cells through binding to its receptor, RANK, expressed on the latter cell population; however, the difficulty to(More)
Neuropilin is a type 1 membrane protein, which is highly conserved among Xenopus frog, chicken and mouse. The extracellular part of the neuropilin protein is composed of three unique domains, each of which is thought to be involved in molecular and/or cellular interactions. In mice, neuropilin is expressed in the cardiovascular system, nervous system and(More)