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Nociceptin/orphanin (Noc/oFQ), endogenous agonist for nociceptin receptor (NOR), is thought to be a stimulator of neurogenic inflammation. We investigated the possible role of Noc/oFQ in the development of colitis using NOR-deficient mice treated with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Colitis was significantly improved in NOR-deficient mice against wild-type(More)
Influenza A virus is a major human and animal pathogen with the potential to cause catastrophic loss of life. The virus reproduces rapidly, mutates frequently and occasionally crosses species barriers. The recent emergence in Asia of avian influenza related to highly pathogenic forms of the human virus has highlighted the urgent need for new effective(More)
Influenza A virus RNA genome exists as eight-segmented ribonucleoprotein complexes containing viral RNA polymerase and nucleoprotein (vRNPs). Packaging of vRNPs and virus budding take place at the apical plasma membrane (APM). However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of apical transport of newly synthesized vRNP. Transfection of(More)
Replication of influenza viral genomic RNA (vRNA) is catalyzed by viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (vRdRP). Complementary RNA (cRNA) is first copied from vRNA, and progeny vRNAs are then amplified from the cRNA. Although vRdRP and viral RNA are minimal requirements, efficient cell-free replication could not be reproduced using only these viral factors.(More)
The pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) is not known. However, monocytes and macrophages are thought to play important roles in the development of mucosal inflammation. Therefore, in this study, we examined the role of monocyte-endothelial cell interactions in senescence-accelerated mouse P1 (SAMP1)/Yit mice, a murine model of spontaneous ileitis.(More)
PURPOSE Serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images acquired from multisite and multivendor MRI scanners are widely used in measuring longitudinal structural changes in the brain. Precise and accurate measurements are important in understanding the natural progression of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. However, geometric(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine whether the extent of fibroproliferative changes on high-resolution CT (HRCT) scan influences prognosis, ventilator dependency and the associated outcomes in patients with early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). DESIGN A prospective observational cohort study. SETTING Intensive care unit in a teaching hospital. (More)
BACKGROUND Although the incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in Japan has increased, the prevalence of celiac disease is considered very low with the lowest genetic disposition. IBD is reported as the most common comorbidity because of the high positive rate of serological celiac markers. The aim of this study was to examine the current incidence(More)