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A tool is an extension of the hand in both a physical and a perceptual sense. The presence of body schemata has been postulated as the basis of the perceptual assimilation of tool and hand. We trained macaque monkeys to retrieve distant objects using a rake, and neuronal activity was recorded in the caudal postcentral gyrus where the somatosensory and(More)
What happens in our brain when we use a tool to reach for a distant object? Recent neurophysiological, psychological and neuropsychological research suggests that this extended motor capability is followed by changes in specific neural networks that hold an updated map of body shape and posture (the putative "Body Schema" of classical neurology). These(More)
In accordance with its important role in prehensile activity, a large cortical area is devoted to representation of the digits. Within this large cortical zone in the macaque somatosensory cortex, the complexity of neuronal receptive field characteristics increases from area 3b to areas 1 and 2 (refs 1-7). This increase in complexity continues into the(More)
When playing a video game, or using a teleoperator system, we feel our self-image projected into the video monitor as a part of or an extension of ourselves. Here we show that such a self image is coded by bimodal (somatosensory and visual) neurons in the monkey intraparietal cortex, which have visual receptive fields (RFs) encompassing their somatosensory(More)
Earlier studies pointed out that in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) the receptive fields (RF) of bilateral neurons were related exclusively to the body midline. We recently found a substantial number of neurons with bilateral RFs on hand digits, shoulders/arms or legs/feet in the caudalmost part (areas 2 and 5) of the postcentral gyrus in awake(More)
Song-learning birds and humans share independently evolved similarities in brain pathways for vocal learning that are essential for song and speech and are not found in most other species. Comparisons of brain transcriptomes of song-learning birds and humans relative to vocal nonlearners identified convergent gene expression specializations in specific song(More)
Although much learning occurs through direct experience of errors, humans and other animals can learn from the errors of other individuals. The medial frontal cortex (MFC) processes self-generated errors, but the neuronal architecture and mechanisms underlying the monitoring of others' errors are poorly understood. Exploring such mechanisms is important, as(More)
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a model for learning and memory processes. Tetanic stimulation of the sensory cortex produces LTP in motor cortical neurons, whereas tetanization of the ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus, which also projects to the motor cortex, does not. However, after simultaneous high-frequency stimulation of both the sensory cortex(More)
Recent findings from neurophysiology, neuropsychology and psychology have shown that peri-personal space is represented through an integrated multisensory processing. In humans, the interaction between peri-personal space representation and action execution can be revealed through the use of tools that, by extending the reachable space, modify the strength(More)
1. Intracellular recordings were obtained from neurons in the motor cortex (MCx), in which excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were evoked by microstimulation of the somatosensory cortex (SCx) and the ventrolateral nucleus (VL) of the thalamus. The effects of combined tetanic stimulation of SCx and VL on the amplitudes of these EPSPs were studied. 2.(More)