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Here, we investigated the expression of the claudin family of tight junction transmembrane proteins in the developing mouse submandibular gland. Data obtained by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunofluorescence microscopy showed the expression and localization of claudin-3 to -8, -10, and -11 at epithelial tight(More)
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy is an adult-onset, hereditary motor neuron disease caused by the expansion of a trinucleotide CAG repeat within the gene encoding the androgen receptor. To date, several agents have been shown to prevent or slow disease progression in animal models of this disease. For the translational research of these agents, it is(More)
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to explore the reliability and validity of tongue pressure measurement as a quantitative evaluation of swallowing function in patients with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). METHODS This study enrolled 47 genetically confirmed patients with SBMA and 38 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. In both groups we measured(More)
Tube formation of the developing mouse submandibular salivary gland (SMG) begins at embryonic day (E) 14. The SMG of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) null mice was recently shown to fail to progress to stages beyond around E14. Here, we examined the effects of Shh peptide on tube formation of SMG explants. When the SMG rudiments from E14 mice were cultured, terminal(More)
AIMS Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is an inherited spinocerebellar ataxia caused by the expansion of trinucleotide CAG repeats in the gene encoding ataxin-3. The clinical manifestations of SCA3 include peripheral neuropathy, which is an important cause of disability in a subset of patients. Although the loss of neurones in the dorsal root ganglion(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to explore the pathomechanism underlying the reduction of serum creatinine (Cr) concentrations in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). METHODS We evaluated blood chemistries, motor function, and muscle mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in male subjects with SBMA (n = 65), amyotrophic lateral(More)
INTRODUCTION Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an adult-onset motor neuron disease caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the androgen receptor gene. The aim of this study was to verify whether urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), an oxidative stress marker, is a biomarker for SBMA. METHODS We measured the levels of urinary 8-OHdG in 33(More)
We aimed to develop, validate, and evaluate a disease-specific outcome measure for SBMA: the Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy Functional Rating Scale (SBMAFRS). We examined the Japanese version (SBMAFRS-J) in 80 Japanese SBMA subjects to evaluate its validity and reliability. We then assessed this scale longitudinally in 41 additional SBMA subjects. The(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to clarify myocardial involvement and its clinical implications in subjects with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), a neuromuscular disease affecting both neuronal and nonneuronal tissues. METHODS Two independent cardiologists evaluated ECGs from a total of 144 consecutive subjects with SBMA. We performed(More)
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an adult-onset, X-linked motor neuron disease characterized by muscle atrophy, weakness, and bulbar involvement. The aim of this study was to analyze the differential change of various outcome measures by comparing the progression of motor impairment in the two independent groups: placebo-treated group (PTG) and(More)