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BACKGROUND AND AIM Early gastric cancer (EGC), with wall invasion limited to the submucosa, has approximately 15 to 20% chance of lymph node metastasis. The purpose of this study is to clarify the parameters which affect lymph node metastasis and survey whether lymph node metastasis can be predicted preoperatively. PATIENTS AND METHODS We retrospectively(More)
We attempted to evaluate the history of sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS), technical aspects, tracers, and clinical applications of SNNS using Infrared Ray Electronic Endoscopes (IREE) combined with Indocyanine Green (ICG). The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as a first lymph node (LN) which receives cancer cells from a primary tumor. Reports on(More)
Whether smoking habits influence ventilatory response to hypoxia and hypercapnia was examined in 23 pairs (8 concordant smoker pairs, 8 concordant nonsmoker pairs, and 7 discordant pairs) of monozygotic twins. Pulmonary function tests were also performed. Smokers (7 subjects) were significantly taller by 2 cm (mean value) than nonsmoker partners (7(More)
The angiogenic factor called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D is a ligand for VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2/KDR) and receptor-3 (VEGFR-3/Flt-4). It is implicated in the development of lymphatic vessels and promotion of lymphatic metastasis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of VEGF-D expression in patients with(More)
Both vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and (VEGF)-D are ligands of VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-3 (Flt-4) and VEGFR-2 (KDR/FLK-1) and are supposed to participate in lymphangiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to clarify the clinical significance of the expression of these factors and to evaluate their relationship with prognosis in patients with(More)
Accurate prediction of lymph node (LN) status is crucially important for appropriate treatment planning in patients with early gastric cancer (EGC). However, consensus on patient and tumor characteristics associated with LN metastasis are yet to be reached. Through systematic search, we identified several independent variables associated with LN metastasis(More)
Small GTPase proteins, including RhoA, RhoB, RhoC, Rac1, and cdc42, are important molecules for linking cell shape and cell-cycle progression because of their role in both cytoskeletal arrangements and mitogenic signaling. Over-expression of wild-type or constitutively active forms of RhoA has been shown to induce invasive behavior in non-invasive rat(More)
Whether genetic influence on chemical and behavioral control of breathing is still present in adulthood was examined in 28 pairs of monozygotic (mean age, 40 +/- SD 9.9 yr) and 10 dizygotic (35 +/- 9.3 yr) twins. Mean values for hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses, threshold for perceiving added inspiratory resistance, and respiratory patterns(More)
To clarify the role of genetics in determining chemical and behavioral control of breathing, an age-, body size-, and sex ratio-matched study was conducted in 62 twins (mean age 16.4 yr, 20 pairs of monozygotic twins (MZ) and 11 pairs of dizygotic twins (DZ)] for ventilatory responses to hypoxia (A) and hypercapnia (S) along with thresholds for perception(More)
Ventilatory responses to hypoxia (A) and hypercapnia (S) were measured in 127 healthy men (105 males and 22 females) by a dual control system for regulating Pa O2 and Pa CO2 simultaneously and independently of each other. The subjects were classified into groups according to sex, age, family history, and genetics (twins). Mean values for A were 138 +/- SD(More)